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Matti Narkia

Are omega-3 fatty acids options for prevention and treatment of cognitive decline and d... - 0 views

    Are omega-3 fatty acids options for prevention and treatment of cognitive decline and dementia?
    Cederholm T, Palmblad J.
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 20019606

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To report recent data on the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) found in oily fish, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), to prevent and treat cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational studies still provide conflicting results, in which the majority indicate beneficial effects on cognition, both when assessed as a continuous variable or as incident dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated potentially ameliorating effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA on amyloid fragment formation, signal transduction including upregulation of the apolipoprotein receptor SorLA, as well as on angiogenesis. The role of EPA and DHA metabolites on Alzheimer's disease pathology is under investigation. Recently, three randomized intervention studies, with duration up to 6 months have been reported. In contrast to a small study from Taiwan, no positive overall effects were reported from the Swedish OmegAD Study or from a Dutch study, although post hoc analyses indicate that selected individuals with mild forms of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline may respond to treatment. SUMMARY: No firm conclusions can be drawn. Based on epidemiological data, fish including oily fish could be advised as part of a balanced diet for public health purpose, although the evidence for better cognition is only fairly consistent. It is unlikely that n-3 FA will emerge as a treatment option in general for improving cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease. n-3 FA, especially DHA, may turn out as an adjuvant therapy in selected cases. Further long-term intervention studies on individuals with mild cognitive reductions are awaite"
Matti Narkia

Fish Oil-Derived Fatty Acids, Docosahexaenoic Acid and Docosapentaenoic Acid, and the R... - 0 views

    Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study.
    Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Nyyssönen K, Lakka TA, Salonen JT.
    Circulation. 2000 Nov 28;102(22):2677-9.
    PMID: 11094031

    Methods and Results-We studied this association in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a prospective population study in Eastern Finland. Subjects were randomly selected and included 1871 men aged 42 to 60 years who had no clinical coronary heart disease at baseline examination. A total of 194 men had a fatal or nonfatal acute coronary event during follow-up. In a Cox proportional hazards' model adjusting for other risk factors, men in the highest fifth of the proportion of serum DHA+DPA in all fatty acids had a 44% reduced risk (P=0.014) of acute coronary events compared with men in the lowest fifth. Men in the highest fifth of DHA+DPA who had a low hair content of mercury (<=2.0 µg />2.0 µg/g). There was no association between proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary events.

    Conclusions-Our data provide further confirmation for the concept that fish oil-derived fatty acids reduce the risk of acute coronary events. However, a high mercury content in fish could attenuate this protective effect.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease -- Breslow 83 (6): S1477 -- American Journal... - 0 views

    n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
    Breslow JL.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1477S-1482S. Review.
    PMID: 16841857

    The results of prospective cohort studies indicate that consuming fish or fish oil containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular death, whereas consumption of the vegetable oil-derived n-3 fatty acid {alpha}-linolenic acid is not as effective. Randomized control trials (RCTs) in the context of secondary prevention also indicate that the consumption of EPA plus DHA is protective at doses <1 g />3 g/d, EPA plus DHA can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including decreasing plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, while improving vascular reactivity. Mainly on the basis of the results of RCTs, the American Heart Association recommends that everyone eat oily fish twice per week and that those with coronary heart disease eat 1 g/d of EPA plus DHA from oily fish or supplements. Directions for future research include 1) RCTs to confirm the initial trials showing that EPA plus DHA decreases cardiovascular death and additional studies to determine whether this effect is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination; the dosage of the effective components; and whether the mechanism of action in humans is prevention of fatal arrhythmias. 2) Clinical studies to determine whether the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors is due to EPA, DHA, or the combination and the dosage of the effective components. 3) Clinical studies to determine whether vegetable oil-derived {alpha}-linolenic acid added to a diet enriched in n-6 fatty acids can effectively substitute for fish oil-derived EPA plus DHA.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects --... - 0 views

    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects.
    Jung UJ, Torrejon C, Tighe AP, Deckelbaum RJ.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):2003S-9S.
    PMID: 18541602

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients through the life cycle. Evidence from observational, clinical, animal, and in vitro studies indicates a beneficial role of n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids may be attributed to a number of distinct biological effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, blood pressure, platelet function, arterial cholesterol delivery, vascular function, and inflammatory responses.

    Substantial evidence supports n-3 fatty acids as a practical, therapeutic adjuvant for promoting cardiovascular health and preventing and treating disease. n-3 Fatty acids modulate a number of important physiologic responses that can contribute to their cardioprotective effects. The multiple and complex mechanisms through which DHA and EPA exert their action appear to be distinct but also complementary. However, more studies are needed to quantify their protective effects and to define exact mechanisms of action.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and gene expression -- Deckelbaum et al. 83 (6): S1520 -- American Jour... - 0 views

    n-3 fatty acids and gene expression.
    Deckelbaum RJ, Worgall TS, Seo T.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6 Suppl):1520S-1525S. Review. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):949.
    PMID: 16841862

    Accumulating evidence in both humans and animal models clearly indicates that a group of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the n-3 fatty acids (or omega-3), have distinct and important bioactive properties compared with other groups of fatty acids. n-3 Fatty acids are known to reduce many risk factors associated with several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The mechanisms whereby n-3 fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. As examples, n-3 fatty acids regulate 2 groups of transcription factors, such as sterol-regulatory-element binding proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, that are critical for modulating the expression of genes controlling both systemic and tissue-specific lipid homeostasis. Modulation of specific genes by n-3 fatty acids and cross-talk between these genes are responsible for many effects of n-3 fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

Quantitative Analysis of the Benefits and Risks of Consuming Farmed and Wild Salmon -- ... - 0 views

    Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon.
    Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ.
    J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2639-43.
    PMID: 16251623

    Contaminants in farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon raise important questions about the competing health benefits and risks of fish consumption. A benefit-risk analysis was conducted to compare quantitatively the cancer and noncancer risks of exposure to organic contaminants in salmon with the (n-3) fatty acid-associated health benefits of salmon consumption. Recommended levels of (n-3) fatty acid intake, as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be achieved by consuming farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of noncarcinogenic risk. However, the recommended level of EPA+DHA intake cannot be achieved solely from farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of carcinogenic risk. Although the benefit-risk ratio for carcinogens and noncarcinogens is significantly greater for wild Pacific salmon than for farmed Atlantic salmon as a group, the ratio for some subgroups of farmed salmon is on par with the ratio for wild salmon. This analysis suggests that risk of exposure to contaminants in farmed and wild salmon is partially offset by the fatty acid-associated health benefits. However, young children, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers not at significant risk for sudden cardiac death associated with CHD but concerned with health impairments such as reduction in IQ and other cognitive and behavioral effects, can minimize contaminant exposure by choosing the least contaminated wild salmon or by selecting other sources of (n-3) fatty acids.
Matti Narkia

NEJM -- Mercury, Fish Oils, and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction - 0 views

    Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction.
    Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, van't Veer P, Bode P, Aro A, Gómez-Aracena J, Kark JD, Riemersma RA, Martín-Moreno JM, Kok FJ; Heavy Metals and Myocardial Infarction Study Group.
    N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 28;347(22):1747-54.
    PMID: 12456850

    Conclusions The toenail mercury level was directly associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, and the adipose-tissue DHA level was inversely associated with the risk. High mercury content may diminish the cardioprotective effect of fish intake.
Matti Narkia

Mercury, Fish Oils, and Risk of Acute Coronary Events and Cardiovascular Disease, Coron... - 0 views

    Mercury, fish oils, and risk of acute coronary events and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in men in eastern Finland.
    Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP, Korhonen MJ, Valkonen VP, Seppänen K, Laukkanen JA, Salonen JT.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jan;25(1):228-33. Epub 2004 Nov 11.
    PMID: 15539625
    doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000150040.20950.61

    Conclusions- High content of mercury in hair may be a risk factor for acute coronary events and CVD, CHD, and all-cause mortality in middle-aged eastern Finnish men. Mercury may also attenuate the protective effects of fish on cardiovascular health.

    Mercury may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, high mercury content in hair increased the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged Finnish men and attenuated the beneficial effects of fish oils on cardiovascular health. Regular consumption of fish with high mercury content should be avoided.
Matti Narkia

Fish consumption and risk of subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults - 0 views

    Fish consumption and risk of subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults.
    Virtanen JK, Siscovick DS, Longstreth WT Jr, Kuller LH, Mozaffarian D.
    Neurology. 2008 Aug 5;71(6):439-46.
    PMID: 18678827
    doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000324414.12665.b0

    Among older adults, modest consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examinations. Our results add to prior evidence that suggest that dietary intake of fish with higher eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content, and not fried fish intake, may have clinically important health benefits
Matti Narkia

Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Hospital Diagnosis of Atri... - 0 views

    Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Hospital Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation in Men.
    Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen TP.
    Circulation. 2009 Dec 8;120(23):2315-21. Epub 2009 Nov 23.
    PMID: 19933935
    doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.852657

    Conclusions- An increased concentration of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in serum, a marker of fish or fish oil consumption, may protect against AF. Serum docosahexaenoic acid concentration had the greatest impact
Matti Narkia

Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Transcription in Hu... - 0 views

    Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits superoxide dismutase 1 gene transcription in human cancer cells: the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha signaling.
    Tuller ER, Beavers CT, Lou JR, Ihnat MA, Benbrook DM, Ding WQ.
    Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;76(3):588-95. Epub 2009 Jun 15.
    PMID: 19528198
Matti Narkia

Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with oste... - 0 views

    Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis.
    Gruenwald J, Petzold E, Busch R, Petzold HP, Graubaum HJ.
    Adv Ther. 2009 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 19756416
    DOI: 10.1007/s12325-009-0060-3
Matti Narkia

The effect of omega-3 FAs on tumour angiogenesis and their therapeutic potential - 0 views

    The effect of omega-3 FAs on tumour angiogenesis and their therapeutic potential.
    Spencer L, Mann C, Metcalfe M, Webb M, Pollard C, Spencer D, Berry D, Steward W, Dennison A.
    Eur J Cancer. 2009 Aug;45(12):2077-86. Epub 2009 Jun 1. Review.
    PMID: 19493674

    Omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3 FA) consumption has long been associated with a lower incidence of colon, breast and prostate cancers in many human populations. Human trials have demonstrated omega-3 FA to have profound anti-inflammatory effects in those with cancer. In vitro and small animal studies have yielded a strong body of evidence establishing omega-3 FA as having anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects. This review explores the evidence and the mechanisms by which omega-3 FA may act as angiogenesis inhibitors and identifies opportunities for original research trialling omega-3 FAs as anti-cancer agents in humans. The conclusions drawn from this review suggest that omega-3 FAs in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found principally in oily fish have potent anti-angiogenic effects inhibiting production of many important angiogenic mediators namely; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Platelet-Derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (PDECGF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide, Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta (NFKB), matrix metalloproteinases and beta-catenin
Matti Narkia

Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case-... - 0 views

    Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case-control study.
    Kim J, Lim SY, Shin A, Sung MK, Ro J, Kang HS, Lee KS, Kim SW, Lee ES.
    BMC Cancer. 2009 Jun 30;9:216.
    PMID: 19566923
    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-216

    These results suggest that high consumption of fatty fish is associated with a reduced risk for breast cancer, and that the intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish is inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk
Matti Narkia

Corrigendum to &quot;Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder A preliminary double-b... - 0 views

    Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
    Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW.
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Aug;13(4):267-71. Erratum in: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Mar;14(2):173.
    PMID: 12888186

    From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients in major depressive disorder.
Matti Narkia

n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease evidence explained and mechanisms explored. ... - 0 views

    n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored.
    Calder PC.
    Clin Sci (Lond). 2004 Jul;107(1):1-11. Review.
    PMID: 15132735


    It is clear from the forgoing discussion that long-chain n-3 fatty acids have been proven to be effective in secondary prevention of MI, with a particularly marked effect on sudden death. Thus it would be prudent to advise post-MI patients to increase long-chain n-3 PUFA consumption. Epidemiological studies, studies investigating effects on classic and emerging risk factors and mechanistic studies indicate that long-chain n-3 fatty acids also play a key role in primary prevention. This is supported by studies in animal models, including monkeys. Thus long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption should be promoted for all individuals especially those at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This is the reason why a number of organizations have now made recommendations relating to the intake of fatty fish (for example [3]) and of long-chain n-3 PUFAs (Table 6). It is clear that there is a wide gap between current intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and many of these recommendations (Table 6). To meet these recommendations strategies other than increased consumption of fatty fish may be required.
Matti Narkia

Fatty acid intake and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US women - 0 views

    Fatty acid intake and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. women.
    Alperovich M, Neuman MI, Willett WC, Curhan GC.
    Nutrition. 2007 Mar;23(3):196-202. Epub 2007 Jan 22.
    PMID: 17236748
    doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2006.11.007.

    Fatty acid intake may affect the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in young and middle-aged women. Higher dietary intake of palmitic acid and possibly DHA and EPA may increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in women while higher oleic acid intake may decrease the risk.
Matti Narkia

Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression (full text PDF) - 0 views

    Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression.
    Sinclair AJ, Begg D, Mathai M, Weisinger RS.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:391-7. Review.
    PMID: 17392137

    This paper discusses the clinical studies conducted in the area of depression and omega 3 PUFA and the possible mechanisms of action of these PUFA. It is clear from the literature that DHA is involved in a variety of processes in neural cells and that its role is far more complex than simply influencing cell membrane properties.
Matti Narkia

JAMA -- Abstract: Omega-3 Augmentation of Sertraline in Treatment of Depression in Pati... - 0 views

    Omega-3 augmentation of sertraline in treatment of depression in patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized controlled trial.
    Carney RM, Freedland KE, Rubin EH, Rich MW, Steinmeyer BC, Harris WS.
    JAMA. 2009 Oct 21;302(15):1651-7.
    PMID: 19843899

    Conclusions Treatment of patients with CHD and major depression with sertraline and omega-3 fatty acids did not result in superior depression outcomes at 10 weeks, compared with sertraline and placebo. Whether higher doses of omega-3 or sertraline, a different ratio of EPA to DHA, longer treatment, or omega-3 monotherapy can improve depression in patients with CHD remains to be determined
Matti Narkia

High {omega}-6 and Low {omega}-3 Fatty Acids are Associated With Depressive Symptoms an... - 0 views

    High omega-6 and low omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depressive symptoms and neuroticism.
    Conklin SM, Manuck SB, Yao JK, Flory JD, Hibbeln JR, Muldoon MF.
    Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):932-4. Epub 2007 Nov 8.PMID: 17991818

    CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with other reports, these findings suggest that the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are related to negative affect at both the symptom and trait levels.
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