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Matti Narkia

Lingzhi mushroom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Língzhī (traditional Chinese: 靈芝; simplified Chinese: 灵芝; Japanese: reishi; Korean: yeongji, hangul: 영지) is the name for one form of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, and its close relative Ganoderma tsugae. Ganoderma lucidum enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used in medicine.

    Lingzhi may possess anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic activities, supported by studies on polysaccharides, terpenes, and other bioactive compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia of this fungus (reviewed by R. R. Paterson[4] and Lindequist et al.[7]). It has also been found to inhibit platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure (via inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme[8]), cholesterol and blood sugar.[9]

    Laboratory studies have shown anti-neoplastic effects of fungal extracts or isolated compounds against some types of cancer. In an animal model, Ganoderma has been reported to prevent cancer metastasis,[10] with potency comparable to Lentinan from Shiitake mushrooms.[11]

    The mechanisms by which G. lucidum may affect cancer are unknown and they may target different stages of cancer development: inhibition of angiogenesis (formation of new, tumor-induced blood vessels, created to supply nutrients to the tumor) mediated by cytokines, cytoxicity, inhibiting migration of the cancer cells and metastasis, and inducing and enhancing apoptosis of tumor cells
Matti Narkia

AMP-activated protein kinase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.[1]

    It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A), which, although being of similar nature, may have opposite effects.[2]"
Matti Narkia

Ginkgo biloba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Ginkgo has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory[25] and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. However, studies differ about its efficacy. The largest and longest independent clinical trial to assess ginkgo biloba's ability to prevent memory loss has found that the supplement does not prevent or delay dementia or Alzheimer's disease.[26] Some controversy has arisen over the conclusions drawn by some studies that were allegedly funded by a firm which marketed Ginkgo.[27]

    In 2002, a long-anticipated paper appeared in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) titled "Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial." This Williams College study, sponsored by the National Institute on Aging rather than Schwabe, examined the effects of ginkgo consumption on healthy volunteers older than 60. The conclusion, now cited in the National Institutes of Health's ginkgo fact sheet, said: "When taken following the manufacturer's instructions, ginkgo provides no measurable benefit in memory or related cognitive function to adults with healthy cognitive function." ... The impact of this seemingly damning assessment, however, was ameliorated by the almost simultaneous publication of a Schwabe-sponsored study in the less prestigious Human Psychopharmacology. This rival study, conducted at Jerry Falwell's Liberty University, was rejected by JAMA, and came to a very different-if not exactly sweeping-conclusion: There was ample evidence to support "the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 in enhancing certain neuropsychological/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults, 60 years of age and over."

    According to some studies, in a few cases, Ginkgo can significantly improve attention in healthy individuals.[28][29] Allegedly, the effect is almost immediate and reaches its peak in 2.5 hours after the intake.[30]
    [edit] In dementia

    A 2004 conference paper[31] summarizes how various trials indicate that Gi
Matti Narkia

Nootropic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Nootropics, popularly referred to as "smart drugs," are substances which boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). The word nootropic is derived from the Greek words noos or mind and tropein meaning to ward. Typically, n
Matti Narkia

Boswellic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Boswellic acids are a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules which are produced by plants in the genus Boswellia. Like many other terpenes, boswellic acids appear in the resin of the plant which exudes them; it is estimated that they make up 30% of the resin of Boswellia serrata
Matti Narkia

Artemisinin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Artemisinin (pronounced /ɑːtə'misinən/) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The compound (a sesquiterpene lactone) is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Not all plants of this species contain artemisinin. Apparently it is only produced when the plant is subjected to certain conditions, most likely biotic or abiotic stress. It can be synthesized from artemisinic acid.[1] The drug is derived from a herb used in Chinese traditional medicine, though it is usually chemically modified and combined with other medications.

    Artemisinin is under early research and testing for treatment of cancer, primarily by researchers at the University of Washington.[7][8] Artemisinin has a peroxide lactone group in its structure. It is thought that when the peroxide comes into contact with high iron concentrations (common in cancerous cells), the molecule becomes unstable and releases reactive oxygen species. It has been shown to reduce angiogenesis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in some tissue cultures.
Matti Narkia

Rhodiola rosea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    Rhodiola rosea (Roseroot) is a plant in the family Crassulaceae that grows in cold regions of the world. These include much of the Arctic, the mountains of Central Asia, the Rocky Mountains, and mountainous parts of Europe, such as the Alps, Pyrenees, Car
Matti Narkia

Category:Herbs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    An herb is a plant grown for medicinal value or for flavoring food. There is some overlap between the milder leafy herbs and the more strongly-flavored leaf vegetables.
Matti Narkia

Proanthocyanidin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Proanthocyanidin (PA or PAC), also known as procyanidin, oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), leukocyanidin, leucoanthocyanin and condensed tannins, is a class of flavanols. Proanthocyanidins are essentially polymer chains of flavonoids such as catechins.[1] One was discovered in 1936 by Professor Jacques Masquelier and called Vitamin P, although this name did not gain official category status and has since fallen out of usage. It was Masquelier who first developed techniques for the extraction of proanthocyanidins from certain plant species.

    Proanthocyanidins have been sold as nutritional and therapeutic supplements in Europe since the 1980s, but their introduction to the United States market has been relatively recent.

    In the human body, they might act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers).[citation needed] OPCs may help protect against the effects of internal and environmental stresses such as cigarette smoking and pollution, as well as supporting normal body metabolic processes. The effects may include depressing blood fat, emolliating blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, preventing blood vessel scleroses, dropping blood viscidity and preventing thrombus formation [18].
    Additionally, studies have shown that OPCs may prevent cardiovascular diseases by counteracting the negative effects of high cholesterol on the heart and blood vessels.

    Pycnogenol® is the name of such an OPCs commercial formulation.

    OPCs are available from fresh grapes, grape juice, and red wine. Although in milligrams per ounce red wine may contain more OPCs than red grape juice, red grape juice contains more OPCs per average serving size. An 8 ounce serving of grape juice averages 124 milligrams OPCs, while a 5 ounce serving of red wine averages 91 milligrams.[19][20] Many other foods and beverages also contain high amounts of OPCs, but very few come close to the levels found in red grape seeds and skins (which readily disperse into grape juice when crushed)
Matti Narkia

Defensin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to 8 conserved cysteine residues. Cells of the immune system contain these peptides to assist in killing phagocytized bacteria, for example in neutrophil granulocytes and almost all epithelial cells. Most defensins function by binding to microbial cell membrane, and once embedded, forming pore-like membrane defects that allow efflux of essential ions and nutrients
Matti Narkia

Coconut oil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconut harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Throughout the tropical world it has provided the primary source of fat in the diets of millions of people for generations. It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. What makes coconut oil different from most other dietary oils is the basic building blocks or fatty acids making up the oil. Coconut oil is composed predominately of a special group of fat molecules known as medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). The majority of fats in the human diet are composed almost entirely of long chain fatty acids (LCFA).

    The primary difference between MCFA and LCFA is the size of the molecule, or more precisely, the length of the carbon chain that makes up the backbone of the fatty acid. MCFA have a chain length of 6 to 12 carbons. LCFA contain 14 or more carbon

    Historically, many populations within the tropics have used coconut medicinally as a treatment for a wide variety of ailments.[8]

    A study into the effects of a "diet rich in.." medium-chain fatty acids (such as in coconut oil and butter) concluded that "MCFAs in the form of MCTs significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and thereby resulted in a less beneficial lipid profile overall."[9]

    Further, research done by nutritionist Mary Enig has found that non-hydrogenated coconut oil (i.e. extra-virgin) consumed in moderate amounts "is at worst neutral with respect to atherogenicity of fats and oils and, in fact, is likely to be a beneficial oil for prevention and treatment of some heart disease."[10] The lack of negative effects of a diet rich in coconut oil on cardiovascular health is born out in studies of Polynesian populations who consume as much as 65% of their calories in the form of coconut oil and yet, have almost no incidence of heart disease and normal blood lipid profiles.[11]
Matti Narkia

Veganism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 1 views

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    A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in western countries found the mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease 26% lower among vegans compared to regular meat eaters, but 34% lower among ovolactovegetarians and those who ate fish but no other meat. No significant difference in mortality was found from other causes.[84] A 2003 review of three studies comparing mortality rates among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians found only a nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease, but noted that the findings were compatible with the significant reduction found in the 1999 review

    The American Dietetic Association considers "appropriately planned" vegan diets "nutritionally adequate",[6] but poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B12,[87] vitamin D,[88] calcium,[88][89] iodine[90] and omega-3 fatty acids.[91] These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences, including anemia,[92] rickets[93] and cretinism[94] in children, and osteomalacia[93] and hypothyroidism[94] in adults.
Matti Narkia

Vegetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 1 views

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    Vegetarianism is the practice of following a diet based on plant-based foods including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs.[1] A vegetarian does not eat meat, game, poultry, fish, crustacea, shellfish, or products of animal slaughter such as animal-derived gelatin and rennet.[1][2][3] A vegan diet is a form of vegetarian diet which excludes all animal products, including dairy products, eggs, and honey. A lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but excludes eggs, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. Vegetarianism may be adopted for ethical, health, environmental, religious, political, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or other reason

    A 1999 metastudy[22] combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be .82, vegetarians to be .84, occasional meat eaters to be .84. Regular meat eaters and vegans shared the highest mortality ratio of 1.00. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: "vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than nonvegetarians, but no associations of a vegetarian diet with other major causes of death were established."[2
Matti Narkia

Atkins diet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "The Atkins diet, officially called the Atkins Nutritional Approach, is a low-carbohydrate diet created by Dr Robert Atkins from a diet he read in the Journal of the American Medical Association and used to resolve his own overweight condition. He later popularized the Atkins diet in a series of books, starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. In his revised book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, he modified or changed some of but remained faithful to the original concepts."
Matti Narkia

Zone diet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "The Zone diet is a diet popularized in books by biochemist Barry Sears. It advocates consuming calories from carbohydrates, protein and fat in a balanced ratio."
Matti Narkia

Tofu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Tofu (豆腐, tōfu?), or bean curd[5] is a soft white food made by coagulating soy milk, and then pressing the resulting curds into blocks. It is of Chinese origin,[6] and part of East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indonesian, Vietnamese[7] and others.[8] There are many different varieties of tofu, including fresh tofu and tofu that has been processed in some way. Tofu has very little flavor or smell on its own, so it can be used either in savory or sweet dishes, and is often seasoned or marinated to suit the dish

    A study done by the Pacific Health Research Institute followed over 3000 Japanese men between 1965 and 1999, which showed a positive correlation between cerebral atrophy and consumption of tofu.[42] However, this study by L.R. White, et al., from the National Institute of Aging, NIH, was rejected as not credible by the Food and Drug Administration."
Matti Narkia

Tempeh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

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    "Tempeh, or tempe in Indonesian, is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form. Tempeh is unique among major traditional soyfoods in that it is the only one that did not originate in China or Japan. It originated in today's Indonesia, and especially popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans, but tempeh is a whole soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempeh's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiber, and vitamins compared to tofu, as well as firmer texture and stronger flavor. Because of its nutritional value, tempeh is used worldwide in vegetarian cuisine; some consider it to be a meat analogue.

    The soy protein in tempeh becomes more digestible as a result of the fermentation process. In particular, the oligosaccharides that are associated with gas and indigestion are greatly reduced by the Rhizopus culture. In traditional tempeh making shops, the starter culture often contains beneficial bacteria that produce vitamins such as B12[1][2] (though it is uncertain whether this B12 is always present and bioavailable[3]). In western countries, it is more common to use a pure culture containing only Rhizopus oligosporus which makes very little B12 and could be missing Klebsiella pneumoniae which has been shown to produce significant levels of B12 analogs in tempeh when present. Whether these analogs are true, bioavailable B12, hasn't been thoroughly studied yet.
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