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Cris Crissman

elearnspace › What is the theory that underpins our moocs? - 2 views

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    Siemens discusses how online learning might transform the existing education system via MOOCs
Kim McLean

Social Network Technologies for Learning ~ Stephen's Web - 1 views

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    October 27, 2011 Keynote presentation delivered to Instituto Cervantes, Providence, Rhode Island. Social network technologies are reforming the way we communicate with each other inside and outside our learning environments. In this presentation, Stephen Downes offers an inside look at these technologies, how they work, what they can do, and where they will likely lead the future of learning online.
Robert Bond

Three generations of distance education pedagogy | Anderson | The International Review ... - 11 views

shared by Robert Bond on 30 Sep 11 - No Cached
  • historically constituted
    • Lisa M Lane
       
      of course!
  • Connectivism: Design and Delivery of Social Networked Learning
    • racheledemeo
       
      Aren't they still novel systems?
    • Silvia Gallo
       
      I think they are still novel systems!! But somebody might have thought of this sometime ago
  • ...87 more annotations...
  • we explore distance education systems as they have evolved through three eras of educational, social, and psychological development
  • The first generation of distance education technology was by postal correspondence.
    • danzitout
       
      Evolution of the five generations of DE learning
  • second generation, defined by the mass media of television, radio, and film production.
  • Third-generation distance education (DE) introduced interactive technologies: first audio, then text, video, and then web and immersive conferencing.
  • the so-called fourth- and even fifth-generation distance technologies except for a use of intelligent data bases (Taylor, 2002) that create “intelligent flexible learning” or that incorporate Web 2.0 or semantic web technologies.
  • attention
    • paulino mendoza
       
      Very important to gain student attention.
  • objectives
  • recall
  • stimulus
  • guidance
    • Dan Gilbert Valencia
       
      not all learners have sufficient autonomy in a given area to be able or willing to exercise the control needed in such an environment.
  • Cognitive presence is the means and context through which learners construct and confirm new knowledge
  • Teachers do not merely transmit knowledge to be passively consumed by learners; rather, each learner constructs means by which new knowledge is both created and integrated with existing knowledge.
  • cognitive presence is located in as authentic a context as possible, which resonates with distance education, much of which takes place in the workplace and other real-world contexts outside of formal classrooms.
  • “the educator is a guide, helper, and partner where the content is secondary to the learning process; the source of knowledge lies primarily in experiences.”
    • julie bergfeld
       
      ah yes! but should this not also be the case in F2F education?
    • racheledemeo
       
      Teaching presence: such a difficult concept to grasp!
  • Connectivist learning focuses on building and maintaining networked connections that are current and flexible enough to be applied to existing and emergent problems. Connectivism also assumes that information is plentiful and that the learner’s role is not to memorize or even understand everything, but to have the capacity to find and apply knowledge when and where it is needed.
    • Mandy Johnson
       
      flexibility is key
  • social presence on networks tends to be busy as topics rise and fall in interest.
  • challenge presented by rapidly changing technologies.
  • connectivist approaches must become more intelligent in enabling people to connect to and discover sources of knowledge
    • Ralene Friend
       
      This is a handy tool!!
  • Behaviourist notions have been especially attractive for use in training (as opposed to educational) programs as the learning outcomes associated with training are usually clearly measured and demonstrated behaviourally
  • Methods that relied on one-to-many and one-to-one communication were really the only sensible options because of the constraints of the surrounding technologies.
  • People are not blank slates but begin with models and knowledge of the world and learn and exist in a social context of great intricacy and depth.
  • learning environment as learner-centred and stressing the importance of multiple perspectives,
  • such models had been waiting in the wings
  • Another notable trend is towards more object-based, contextual, or activity-based models of learning. It is not so much a question of building and sustaining networks as of finding the appropriate sets of things and people and activities.
    • Ralene Friend
       
      So true! (usually)
    • maria laura carlsson
       
      I agree!
    • Ralene Friend
       
      Learners teach, too!
    • Ralene Friend
       
      Interesting way to put it
  • Social-constructivist theories are theories of learning that are less easily translated into theories of teaching than their CB forebears.
    • Norm Wright
       
      Cognitive-behaviourist models - theories of teaching
  • It is likely, as learners become more acclimatized and skilled in using ever-present mobile communications and embedded technologies, that barriers associated with a lack of social presence will be further reduced, allowing constructivist models to thrive.
  • Cognitive-behaviourist models are most notably theories of teaching
  • social–constructivist models are more notably theories of learning
    • Norm Wright
       
      social-constructivist models - theories of learning
    • Norm Wright
       
      Connectivist models - theories of knowledge
  • Indeed, the notion of a teacher is almost foreign to the connectivist worldview, except perhaps as a role model and fellow node
  • Connectivist models are more distinctly theories of knowledge
    • maria laura carlsson
       
      You HAVE to read the last sentence in this paragraph. It says it all. I highlight it for you :)
  • The availability of technologies to support different models of learning strongly influences what kinds of model can be developed; if there were no means of two-way communication, for example, it would prevent the development of a pedagogy that exploited dialogue and conversation and encourage the development of a pedagogy that allowed the learner and the course content to be self-contained.
  • Despite the general absence of the teacher in these CB pedagogies, one cannot discount the teaching presence that potentially could be developed through one-to-one written correspondence, telephone conversation, or occasional face-to-face interaction between teacher and student, as amply demonstrated in the movie and play versions of Educating Rita.
  • almost total absence of social presence
  • Connectivist cognitive presence begins with the assumption that learners have access to powerful networks and, as importantly, are literate and confident enough to exploit these networks in completing learning tasks.
    • wayupnorth
       
      that is a lot to assume, and a huge learning curve for the technophobe
    • Dan Gilbert Valencia
       
      agreed, many still do not have access to these things
  • the repertoire of options available to DE designers and learners has increased
    • Donna Marques
       
      I like having options! It's wonderful to build on existing techniques rather than re-inventing the wheel!
    • tuanjana
       
      Learning how to use the notes in diigo, hello all!!
  • learning as an active rather than passive process
    • language and other social tools in constructing knowledge,
    • metacognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners’ capacity to assess their own learning
    • Darlene Burke
       
      Great analogy - the technology sets the beat and creates the music, while the pedagogy defines the moves.
    • learning environment as learner-centred and stressing the importance of multiple perspectives,
    • knowledge needing to be subject to social discussion, validation, and application in real world contexts
    • new knowledge as building upon the foundation of previous learning,
    • context in shaping learners’ knowledge development
    • tuanjana
       
      Build, build and build, but how? With new technologies we can build more in less time... How is the time for our students an our teacher with the new techologies more or less than before? It seems to be no enough time for all or you have now more time for yourself and your hobbies and life? 
  • Many educators pride
  • the generations have evolved in tandem with the technologies that enable them
  • We conclude by arguing that all three current and future generations of DE pedagogy have an important place in a well-rounded educational experience. Connectivism is built on an assumption of a constructivist model of learning, with the learner at the centre, connecting and constructing knowledge in a context that includes not only external networks and groups but also his or her own histories and predilections. At a small scale, both constructivist and connectivist approaches almost always rely to a greater or lesser degree on the availability of the stuff of learning, much of which (at least, that which is successful in helping people to learn) is designed and organized on CB models. The Web sites, books, tutorial materials, videos, and so on, from which a learner may learn, all work more or less effectively according to how well they enable the learner to gain knowledge. Even when learning relies on entirely social interactions, the various parties involved may communicate knowledge more or less effectively. It is clear that whether the learner is at the centre or part of a learning community or learning network, learning effectiveness can be greatly enhanced by applying, at a detailed level, an understanding of how people can learn more effectively: Cognitivist, behaviourist, constructivist, and connectivist theories each play an important role.
  • pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design
  • earning content, context, and learning expectations.
  • community of inquiry (COI) model
  • technology used to span these distances
  • postal correspondence.
  • repertoire
  • costs and complexity
  • maximized access and student freedom
  • this focus on human interactions placed limits on accessibility and produced more costly models
  • t is considered to be a critical component of quality distance education
  • guiding and evaluating authentic tasks performed in realistic contexts.
  • aching presence
  • teaching presence
  • technology has played a major role in determining the potential pedagogies that may be employed.
  • teaching presence is created by the building of learning paths and by design and support of interactions,
  • earners and teacher collaborate to create the content of study, and in the process re-create that content for future use by others.
  • Constructivist models still place an emphasis on scaffolding
  • connectivist approaches require a great deal of energy
  • difficulties in learning multiple technologies
  • explore and capitalize on different aspects of the learning process
    • bethanie perry
       
      Being the history nerd that I am, I was struck by this idea of studying the history of distance education pedagogy and how it has changed over time
  • begins with notions of learning which are generally defined as new behaviours or changes in behaviours that are acquired as the result of an individual’s response to stimuli
  • growing need to account for motivation, attitudes, and mental barriers that may only be partially associated or demonstrated through observable behaviours
    • bethanie perry
       
      seems like many may disagree with this notion of distance education as the absence of social presence
  • “post-industrialist era” of distance education
    • bethanie perry
       
      Change in social approach with advent of new media. Ideas change, not learners needs?
  • arguing that learning is the process of building networks of information, contacts, and resources that are applied to real problems
  • CB models provide a strong structure to learning that makes explicit the path to be taken to knowledge
  • Teaching Presence
  • Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy
    • Silvia Gallo
       
      aim
  • Thus distance education theorists (Garrison, 1985; Nipper, 1989), in a somewhat technologically deterministic bent, have described and defined distance education based on the predominate technologies employed for delivery.
  • To some extent, our pedagogical processes may themselves be viewed as technologies
    • Silvia Gallo
       
      one needs the other, they complement each other
  • we introduce a simple typology in which distance education pedagogies are mapped into three distinct generations. Since the three arose in different eras and in chronological order, we’ve labeled them from first to third generation, but as in generations of technology, none of these three pedagogical generations has disappeared, and we will argue that all three can and should be effectively used to address the full spectrum of learning needs and aspirations of 21st century learners.
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    includes chart summarizing cognitive/behaviorism, constructivism, connectivism
  • ...5 more comments...
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    I simply highlighted the title of the series to draw attention to notion of connectivism.
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    "almost total absence of social presence"
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    I took a few high school courses by correspondence in the late 60's. Social presence is what I appreciate most in the new generation of cMoocs.
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    Pedagogía y diferentes generaciones en la educación a distancia.
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    I hope you see my highlights and comments.
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    great analogy the technology sets the beat and creates the music, while the pedagogy defines the moves.
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    This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy.
Clare Atkins

Instructivism, constructivism or connectivism? « E-Learning Provocateur - 0 views

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    Instructivism, constructivism or connectivism?
Clare Atkins

Taxonomy of Learning Theories « E-Learning Provocateur - 0 views

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    To clear some of the obfuscation that surrounds learning theory, I have developed the following Taxonomy of Learning Theories.
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