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Michel Roland-Guill

Larry Sanger Blog » How not to use the Internet, part 2: the pernicious design philosophy of the Internet - 0 views

  • The way that the Internet is designed—not graphic design, but overall habits and architecture—encourages the widespread distractability that I, at least, hate.
  • I learned it from Nicholas Carr
  • Interconnectivity: information that is of some inherent public interest is typically marinated in meta-information: (a) is bathed in (b). It is not enough to make the inherently interesting content instantly available and easy to find; it must also be surrounded by links, sidebars, menus, and other info, and promoted on social media via mail. This is deliberate, but it has gotten worse in the last ten years or so, with the advent of syndicated blog feeds (RSS), then various other social media feeds. This is, of course, supposed to be for the convenience and enlightenment of the user, and no doubt sometimes it is. But I think it usually doesn’t help anybody, except maybe people who are trying to build web traffic. Recency: the information to be most loudly announced online is not just recent, but the brand-spanking-newest, and what allegedly deserves our attention now is determined democratically, with special weight given to the opinions of people we know.
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  • soon after we surf to a page of rich media, its interconnections lead us away from whatever led us to the page in the first place,
  • I think there is something really wrong with this design philosophy. We ought to try to change it, if we can.
Michel Roland-Guill

Internet Archive's Peter Brantley Urges Librarians to More Actively Reshape the Digital Landscape | ALA Annual 2012 - The Digital Shift - 1 views

  • The Internet Archive’s Peter Brantley made a cogent and precise presentation at the American Library Association conference this week that urged the librarian community to do a better job of shaping the multitude of conversations that ultimately affect how and what libraries can do with digital content.
  • books in many ways are an afterthought for them
Michel Roland-Guill

The End of Solitude - The Chronicle Review - The Chronicle of Higher Education - 0 views

  • The camera has created a culture of celebrity; the computer is creating a culture of connectivity. As the two technologies converge — broadband tipping the Web from text to image, social-networking sites spreading the mesh of interconnection ever wider — the two cultures betray a common impulse. Celebrity and connectivity are both ways of becoming known. This is what the contemporary self wants. It wants to be recognized, wants to be connected: It wants to be visible.
  • I once asked my students about the place that solitude has in their lives. One of them admitted that she finds the prospect of being alone so unsettling that she'll sit with a friend even when she has a paper to write. Another said, why would anyone want to be alone?
  • Man may be a social animal, but solitude has traditionally been a societal value. In particular, the act of being alone has been understood as an essential dimension of religious experience, albeit one restricted to a self-selected few. Through the solitude of rare spirits, the collective renews its relationship with divinity.
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  • Communal experience is the human norm, but the solitary encounter with God is the egregious act that refreshes that norm.
  • Like other religious values, solitude was democratized by the Reformation and secularized by Romanticism.
  • The child who grew up between the world wars as part of an extended family within a tight-knit urban community became the grandparent of a kid who sat alone in front of a big television, in a big house, on a big lot. We were lost in space. Under those circumstances, the Internet arrived as an incalculable blessing
  • For Emerson, "the soul environs itself with friends, that it may enter into a grander self-acquaintance or solitude; and it goes alone, for a season, that it may exalt its conversation or society."
  • Modernism decoupled this dialectic. Its notion of solitude was harsher, more adversarial, more isolating. As a model of the self and its interactions, Hume's social sympathy gave way to Pater's thick wall of personality and Freud's narcissism — the sense that the soul, self-enclosed and inaccessible to others, can't choose but be alone. With exceptions, like Woolf, the modernists fought shy of friendship. Joyce and Proust disparaged it; D.H. Lawrence was wary of it; the modernist friendship pairs — Conrad and Ford, Eliot and Pound, Hemingway and Fitzgerald — were altogether cooler than their Romantic counterparts.
  • Protestant self-examination becomes Freudian analysis, and the culture hero, once a prophet of God and then a poet of Nature, is now a novelist of self — a Dostoyevsky, a Joyce, a Proust.
  • Romantic solitude existed in a dialectical relationship with sociability
  • My students told me they have little time for intimacy. And of course, they have no time at all for solitude. But at least friendship, if not intimacy, is still something they want.
  • In fact, their use of technology — or to be fair, our use of technology — seems to involve a constant effort to stave off the possibility of solitude, a continuous attempt, as we sit alone at our computers, to maintain the imaginative presence of others.
  • The more we keep aloneness at bay, the less are we able to deal with it and the more terrifying it gets.
  • the previous generation's experience of boredom
  • The two emotions, loneliness and boredom, are closely allied. They are also both characteristically modern. The Oxford English Dictionary's earliest citations of either word, at least in the contemporary sense, date from the 19th century.
  • Boredom is not a necessary consequence of having nothing to do, it is only the negative experience of that state. Television, by obviating the need to learn how to make use of one's lack of occupation, precludes one from ever discovering how to enjoy it. In fact, it renders that condition fearsome, its prospect intolerable. You are terrified of being bored — so you turn on the television.
  • consumer society wants to condition us to feel bored, since boredom creates a market for stimulation.
  • The alternative to boredom is what Whitman called idleness: a passive receptivity to the world.
  • Loneliness is not the absence of company, it is grief over that absence.
  • Internet is as powerful a machine for the production of loneliness as television is for the manufacture of boredom.
  • And losing solitude, what have they lost? First, the propensity for introspection, that examination of the self that the Puritans, and the Romantics, and the modernists (and Socrates, for that matter) placed at the center of spiritual life — of wisdom, of conduct. Thoreau called it fishing "in the Walden Pond of [our] own natures," "bait[ing our] hooks with darkness." Lost, too, is the related propensity for sustained reading.
  • Solitude, Emerson said, "is to genius the stern friend." "He who should inspire and lead his race must be defended from traveling with the souls of other men, from living, breathing, reading, and writing in the daily, time-worn yoke of their opinions." One must protect oneself from the momentum of intellectual and moral consensus — especially, Emerson added, during youth.
  • The university was to be praised, Emerson believed, if only because it provided its charges with "a separate chamber and fire" — the physical space of solitude. Today, of course, universities do everything they can to keep their students from being alone, lest they perpetrate self-destructive acts, and also, perhaps, unfashionable thoughts.
  • The last thing to say about solitude is that it isn't very polite.
  • the ability to stand back and observe life dispassionately, is apt to make us a little unpleasant to our fellows
Michel Roland-Guill

The Rise of the New Groupthink / Susan Cain - NYTimes.com - 0 views

  • SOLITUDE is out of fashion
  • the most spectacularly creative people in many fields are often introverted
  • solitude is a catalyst to innovation
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  • Solitude has long been associated with creativity and transcendence. “Without great solitude, no serious work is possible,” Picasso said. A central narrative of many religions is the seeker — Moses, Jesus, Buddha — who goes off by himself and brings profound insights back to the community.
  • “Most inventors and engineers I’ve met are like me ... they live in their heads. They’re almost like artists. In fact, the very best of them are artists. And artists work best alone .... I’m going to give you some advice that might be hard to take. That advice is: Work alone... Not on a committee. Not on a team.”
  • Wozniak
  • Our schools have also been transformed by the New Groupthink
  • What distinguished programmers at the top-performing companies wasn’t greater experience or better pay. It was how much privacy, personal workspace and freedom from interruption they enjoyed
  • Studies show that open-plan offices make workers hostile, insecure and distracted. They’re also more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, stress, the flu and exhaustion. And people whose work is interrupted make 50 percent more mistakes and take twice as long to finish it.
  • brainstorming sessions are one of the worst possible ways to stimulate creativity
  • People in groups tend to sit back and let others do the work; they instinctively mimic others’ opinions and lose sight of their own; and, often succumb to peer pressure
  • “the pain of independence.”
  • The one important exception to this dismal record is electronic brainstorming, where large groups outperform individuals; and the larger the group the better. The protection of the screen mitigates many problems of group work. This is why the Internet has yielded such wondrous collective creations. Marcel Proust called reading a “miracle of communication in the midst of solitude,” and that’s what the Internet is, too. It’s a place where we can be alone together — and this is precisely what gives it power.
  • Our offices should encourage casual, cafe-style interactions, but allow people to disappear into personalized, private spaces when they want to be alone.
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    "Marcel Proust called reading a "miracle of communication in the midst of solitude," and that's what the Internet is, too. It's a place where we can be alone together - and this is precisely what gives it power."
  •  
    merci pour ce lien; un article à forte "valeur heuristique"
Michel Roland-Guill

How the net traps us all in our own little bubbles | Technology | The Observer - 3 views

  • The basic code at the heart of the new internet is pretty simple. The new generation of internet filters looks at the things you seem to like – the actual things you've done, or the things people like you like – and tries to extrapolate. They are prediction engines, constantly creating and refining a theory of who you are and what you'll do and want next.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      Externalisation de la construction de l'identité
  • you're the only person in your bubble
  • the filter bubble is a centrifugal force, pulling us apart.
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  • the filter bubble is invisible
  • from within the bubble, it's nearly impossible to see how biased it is
  • you don't choose to enter the bubble
  • the filter bubble can affect your ability to choose how you want to live. To be the author of your life, professor Yochai Benkler argues, you have to be aware of a diverse array of options and lifestyles. When you enter a filter bubble, you're letting the companies that construct it choose which options you're aware of
  • You can get stuck in a static, ever- narrowing version of yourself – an endless you-loop.
  • Bowling Alone, his book on the decline of civic life in America, Robert Putnam
  • major decrease in "social capital" – the bonds of trust and allegiance that encourage people to do each other favours
  • our virtual neighbours look more and more like our real-world neighbours, and our real-world neighbours look more and more like us.
  • We're getting a lot of bonding but very little bridging
  • It's easy to push "Like" and increase the visibility of a friend's post about finishing a marathon or an instructional article about how to make onion soup. It's harder to push the "Like" button on an article titled "Darfur sees bloodiest month in two years".
  • "It's a civic virtue to be exposed to things that appear to be outside your interest," technology journalist Clive Thompson told me.
  • With Google personalised for everyone, the query "stem cells" might produce diametrically opposed results for scientists who support stem-cell research and activists who oppose it.
  • Starting that morning, Google would use 57 signals – everything from where you were logging in from to what browser you were using to what you had searched for before – to make guesses about who you were and what kinds of sites you'd like. Even if you were logged out, it would customise its results, showing you the pages it predicted you were most likely to click on.
  • More and more, your computer monitor is a kind of one-way mirror, reflecting your own interests while algorithmic observers watch what you click.
    • Alain Marois
       
      relire Kevin Slavin via http://www.internetactu.net/2011/02/24/kevin-slavin-il-nous-faut-dresser-latlas-des-algorithmes-contemporains/
  • on 4 December 2009 the era of personalisation began
  • What was once an anonymous medium where anyone could be anyone – where, in the words of the famous New Yorker cartoon, nobody knows you're a dog – is now a tool for soliciting and analysing our personal data.
  • "You're getting a free service, and the cost is information about you. And Google and Facebook translate that pretty directly into money."
  • Acxiom alone has accumulated an average of 1,500 pieces of data on each person on its database – which includes 96% of Americans – along with data about everything from their credit scores to whether they've bought medication for incontinence.
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    il est temps de proposer une critique - francophone ! - de ce social web que l'on nous propose, et l'on alimente, et qui structure nos vies de plus en plus; indispensable littéracie au delà du search et de l'identité numérique; merci pour ce signet
Michel Roland-Guill

Is Google Making Us Smarter? - Internet - Search - Informationweek - 0 views

  • Carr's concern about the impact of the Internet on the way we think isn't misplaced. Small's research and other studies make it clear that the information explosion and the tools we employ to contain it affect cognition. But it will take time before it's clear whether we should mourn the old ways, celebrate the new, or learn to stop worrying and love the Net.
Michel Roland-Guill

Internet : pourquoi le net ne dispense aucune connaissance | Atlantico - 0 views

  • Connaître un objet ne consiste pas, en effet, à collectionner les informations relatives à cet objet.
  • la compétence est une composante indissociable de toute connaissance
  • la connaissance doit s’appuyer sur des institutions, des universités, des traditions, des principes…
Michel Roland-Guill

Brain doctor: Spend five hours on the Internet and call me in the morning | j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California - 0 views

  • Dr. Gary Small says bringing younger and older people together helps optimize the neural circuitry for both generations.
  • Small, director of the UCLA Center on Aging, described results of research he and colleagues performed with volunteers between the ages of 55 and 76.
Florence Jacolin

Guide pratique écrire pour Internet - 0 views

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    Comment lit-on à l'écran, conseils rédactionnels, écriture web, accessibilité, typologie des documents, html, notions juridiques, glossaire.
Michel Roland-Guill

Your Brain on Google: Patterns of Cerebral Activation during... : American Journal of Geriatric Psych - 0 views

  • significant increases in signal intensity in additional regions controlling decision making, complex reasoning, and vision
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    "Your Brain on Google: Patterns of Cerebral Activation during Internet Searching"
Michel Roland-Guill

Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: Minds like sieves - 2 views

  • we may be entering an era in history in which we will store fewer and fewer memories inside our own brains.
    • Michel Roland-Guill
       
      conclusion un peu rapide: plutôt que moins de mémorisation ce peut être une différente forme de mémorisation, plutôt que mémorisation des faits mémorisation des lieux de stockage des faits.
  • external storage and biological memory are not the same thing
  • When we form, or "consolidate," a personal memory, we also form associations between that memory and other memories that are unique to ourselves and also indispensable to the development of deep, conceptual knowledge. The associations, moreover, continue to change with time, as we learn more and experience more. As Emerson understood, the essence of personal memory is not the discrete facts or experiences we store in our mind but "the cohesion" which ties all those facts and experiences together. What is the self but the unique pattern of that cohesion?
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  • We are becoming symbiotic with our computer tools
  • "when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it."
  • "It seems that when we are faced with a gap in our knowledge, we are primed to turn to the computer to rectify the situation."
  • we seem to have trained our brains to immediately think of using a computer when we're called on to answer a question or otherwise provide some bit of knowledge.
  • people who believed the information would be stored in the computer had a weaker memory of the information than those who assumed that the information would not be available in the computer
  • believing that one won’t have access to the information in the future enhances memory for the information itself, whereas believing the information was saved externally enhances memory for the fact that the information could be accessed, at least in general.
  • when people expect information to remain continuously available (such as we expect with Internet access), we are more likely to remember where to find it than we are to remember the details of the item.
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