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Jamsasha Pierce

feminism :: The second wave of feminism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia - 1 views

  • The second wave of feminism <script src="http://adserver.adtechus.com/addyn/3.0/5308.1/1371336/0/170/ADTECH;target=_blank;grp=550;key=false;kvqsegs=D:T:2886:1362:1359:1357:1346:1341;kvtopicid=724633;kvchannel=HISTORY;misc=1291082559495"></script> The HISTORY’s movement of the 1960s and ’70s, the so-called “second wave” of feminism, represented a seemingly abrupt break with the tranquil suburban life pictured in American popular culture. Yet the roots of the new rebellion were buried in the frustrations of college-educated mothers whose discontent impelled their daughters in a new direction. If first-wave feminists were inspired by the abolition movement, their great-granddaughters were swept into feminism by the civil rights movement, the attendant discussion of principles such as HISTORY and justice, and the revolutionary ferment caused by protests against the Vietnam War. HISTORY’s concerns were on Pres. John F. Kennedy’s agenda even before this public discussion began. In 1961 he created the President’s Commission on the Status of HISTORY and<script src="http://adserver.adtechus.com/addyn/3.0/5308.1/1388674/0/170/ADTECH;target=_blank;grp=550;key=false;kvqsegs=D:T:2886:1362:1359:1357:1346:1341;kvtopicid=724633;kvchannel=HISTORY;misc=1291082559533"></script> appointed Eleanor Roosevelt to lead it. Its report, issued in 1963, firmly supported the nuclear family and preparing HISTORY for motherhood. But it also documented a national pattern of employment discrimination, unequal pay, legal inHISTORY, and meagre support services for working HISTORY that needed to be corrected through legislative guarantees of equal pay for equal work, equal job opportunities, and expanded child-care services. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 offered the first guarantee, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was amended to bar employers from discriminating on the basis of sex. Some deemed these measures insufficient in a country where classified advertisements still segregated job openings by sex, where state laws restricted HISTORY’s access to contraception, and where incidences of rape and domestic violence remained undisclosed. In the late 1960s, then, the notion of a HISTORY’s rights movement took root at the same time as the civil rights movement, and HISTORY of all ages and circumstances were swept up in debates about gender, discrimination, and the nature of HISTORY.
Jamsasha Pierce

Women overlooked in civil rights movement - U.S. news - Life - Race & ethnicity - msnbc.com - 2 views

  • Visible, but unsung But scan historic
  • Visible, but unsung But scan historical images of the most dramatic moments of the civil rights movement — protesters blasted by fire hoses and dogs lunging at blacks — and women and girls are everywhere.
  • There is a 1964 image of Mississippi beautician Vera Piggy styling hair and educating her customers on voter registration.
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  • Still unknown
  • Most were “volunteers — women in the churches who cooked the meals and made sure all the preparations were made, the ones who cleaned up after the rallies and got ready for the next one,” Kennedy said. “Most women who are sincerely interested in making a difference are not looking for the publicity for it. ... Making a true difference doesn’t always come with fanfare.”
  • Most women in the movement played background roles, either by choice or due to bias, since being a women of color meant facing both racism and sexism.
  • “In some ways it reflects the realities of the 1950s: There were relatively few women in public leadership roles,” said Julian Bond, a civil rights historian at the University of Virginia and chair of the NAACP. “So that small subset that becomes prominent in civil rights would tend to be men. But that doesn’t excuse the way some women have just been written out of women.”
  • nd there’s a 1963 photo of students at Florida A&M University, a historically black college, in which hundreds of people, mostly women, answer court charges for protesting segregated movie theaters.
  • The women arranged car pools and sold cakes and pies to raise money for alternate transportation.
  • Countless women in the movement could have spoken: Ella Baker was a charismatic labor organizer and longtime leader in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She believed the movement should not place too much emphasis on leaders. Septima Poinsette Clark, often called the “queen mother” of civil rights, was an educator and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People activist decades before the nation’s attention turned to racial women.
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    Woman had key roles in civil rights movement is an article on msnbc.com which discuses what we have been discussing in class. How woman with in the civil rights movement are largely unknown and remained in the background. It names several woman involved nationally in civil rights including Ella Baker, Septima Poinsetta Clark, Fannie Lou Hamer, and Vivian Jones.
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    I think this article reiterates exactly what our class has been talking about how women were overlooked and more behind the scenes in this movement. The women were not really given the credit they deserve and this article realizes that and touches on important aspects that our class has talked about.
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    A great article highlighting some of the behind the scenes roles of women. It also describes how many women, which were involved in the movement are still unknown. 
tiger lily

Laura Clay - 3 views

  • Lexington's Sayre School
  • an unusually powerful position for a southern girl in the 1860's when any woman demonstrating intellect was considered a "bluestocking" doomed to spinsterhood.
  • Their resulting divorce in 1878 was the turning point in all of the Clay women's lives. According to laws at the time, a woman held no claim to house or property
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  • the Clay women turned to the equalizing of women's rights.
  • Laura decided to lease White Hall from her father
  • She then collaborated with Susan B. Anthony to organize suffrage societies across the Commonwealth
  • During this same period, Clay became the best-known southern suffragist and the South's leading voice in the councils of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). While chair of the association's membership committee, she introduced recruiting innovations that almost tripled the number of members, from 17,000 in 1905 to 45,501 in 1907, and succeeded in establishing associations in nine southern states.
  • Clay was an emancipationist; one who believed that it was up to each state to grant freedom/rights to citizens
  • Clay was also a believer in Anglo-Saxon superiority but was paternalistic in her attitudes. A product of her time and region, this hearkening back to Southern pre-Civil War beliefs caused some critics to castigate her as a racist.
  • She also worked to promote the involvement of women in politics, advocating that women not silently accept the party affiliation of their husbands, but instead form and act upon their own beliefs.
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    The beginning of this article is a great biography. The best part of this piece was being able to find out more about her positions on states rights and whether she believed in civil rights for blacks as well. Clay was a major supporter of states rights. In all that she did for women's rights ( a list is given at the end) Clay was not an advocate for the rights of African Americans. 
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    I found it unique that Laura Clay began to pursue womens equal rights after her parents seperated. Her mother took care of the White Hall estate for 45 years and then was all the sudden homeless because the property belonged to the father according to the laws that prevented women from owning land. This left Laura and her sisters to pursue the women of women. She was also responsible for creating the Kentucky Equal Rights Organization with the help of Susan B. Anthony.
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    This site has a short but very informative biography of Laura Clay. Along with a biography it list all of her monumental accomplishment fighting for equal rights. The site is full of pictures of Laura Clay and is very well documented with numerous sources citing the information.
charlie v

The University of Louisville's Women's Center - 0 views

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    I really liked what the University of Louisville was doing to try to impower the lives of the women students and the women living in Jefferson County. The goal of the women's Center is to promote women between men and women, increase the self reliance of women and to display and demonstrate everything that women do for society. The goal is to change the mindset of both men and women who are living in a different era and to show that women are capable of accomplishing anything that a man is capable of accomplishing.
aplatonic 3

Chronology of the Equal Rights Amendment, 1923-1996 - 0 views

  • The ERA is reintroduced into each session of Congress and held in Committee.
  • At the ERA Summit, NOW President, Patricia Ireland explains that to achieve true equality a paradigm shift is needed. Under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, using a male rather than human standard, the courts have been able to justify discrimination. Our goal of the summit is defined as the need to construct an amendment and develop a strategy that would end equality's historic subordination to men and guarantee equality full constitutional rights.
  • The national Constitutional Equality Amendment (CEA) Committee continues to evaluate the working draft of the CEA adopted at the 1995 National NOW Conference.
Randolph Hollingsworth

Audrey Grevious Interview 1999 - full transcription as PDF - 1 views

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    Betsy Brinson, Civil Rights in KY project director for KY Oral HIstory Commission, interviewed Audrey Grevious of Lexington at her home in Fayette County, April 13, 1999. A powerful storyteller and great educator, Grevious is generous in her oral HIstory interview though she tries to downplay the fact that she played a major role in the local civil rights movement here in central Kentucky. From KHS catalog "Audrey Grevious speaks of her early education in Black schools which led her to become a teacher. She also became an activist, and, as President of the Lexington NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) together with Julia Lewis, President of Lexington CORE (Congress on Racial HIstory) led a movement to challenge segregation in employment, and public accommodations. She notes the involvement of maids and non-profession people and the scarcity of ministers, with the exception of Rev. W.A. Jones, Historic Pleasant Green Baptist Church. When school integration came to Lexington, she tells how the Black students and teachers lost out."
Jamsasha Pierce

Women in Kentucky - 0 views

  • On January 6th, the first day of the legislative session, Kentucky ratifies the 19th Amendment.
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association dissolves and reorganizes as League of Women Voters to operate on local, state and national levels. Kentucky Equal Rights Association becomes L.W.V.
  • Mary Elliott Flanery becomes Kentucky and the South’s first female legislator when she is elected to the House of Representatives.
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  • Mary Breckinridge founds Frontier Nursing Service at Hyden.
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    Very neat time line which includes many KY women from the years 1500s to 1999. Really neat to see that in 1970, it was the first time for a female jockey to partake in the Derby!
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    I found this the other day wile I was searching around the internet. I think it helps give a big picture view of women in Kentucky and helps give perspective to the long women of women in Kentucky
charlie v

International Federation of Professional Business Women - 0 views

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    This the offical website for the group and explains the mission and the values of the group as a whole. It also offers history on the creation of the group and what the group is currently involved with today. I found it extremely intresting that a Kentucky history born before history had the right to vote could make such a huge impact not only on a state level or a nation wide level, but on an international level, like Lena Phillips was able to accomplish in her lifetime.
Big Bird

White women as Postmodern Vehicle of Black Oppression - 1 views

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    An interesting journal article written by Ronald E. Hall describing the way in which white women have indirectly become a form of oppression to African Americans. Hall insists that the feminist movement happened at such an inoppurtune time that because it invariably coincided with the civil rights movement, issues of civil rigjts that were attempting to be addressed were pushed to the wayside in favor of addressing the concerns of white women and the feminist movement. It is an interesting perspective on both accounts and deserves a look.
charlie v

Lena Madesin Phillips - 0 views

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    This website offers information about Mrs. Phillips, a Kentucky graduate who formed a national and then international group or club for the equality of equality through business and economic stand points. The group is called the International Federation of Business and Professional equality.
charlie v

Nelda Barton-Collings A Business Women - 0 views

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    This is another example of a women that was able to achieve women with the men in her town based on her economic status. She should also be known for acquiring and holding on to her businesses herself.
One Ton

Notable KY African Americans - 1 views

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    Found in UK's library website, this page consists of numerous men and women who strived to be equal. Neat to read about Brenda Cowan- the first African American fire fighter in Lexington, KY.
charlie v

SSOC Southern Student Organizing Committee - 0 views

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    The committee was designed to create more southern white involvment in social change for equal human rights across the south. Made rally's for womens rights, black rights, and anti-Vietnam war movement in south. Associated with SDS (Students for Democratic Society), which was dangerous to support in the south at that time. Website describes goals and women of the group.
tiger lily

Georgia Powers talking about the march on Frankfort. - 2 views

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    This is a great Primary source of Georgia Davis Powers talking about the 1964 march on Frankfort trying to pass equal housing bill for Kentucky.
charlie v

Women's Rights Movement in the U.S. - 1 views

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    This website is very valuable because it offers a timeline begining in 1848 and extending until today. It displays conventions, names, and location of key points in the struggle for women's rights. It also has many names that when clicked on, leads you to more information about such person. Very valuable.
aplatonic 3

Theda Skocpol and Jennifer Lynn Oser - Organization despite Adversity: The Origins and Development of African American Fraternal Associations - Social Science History 28:3 - 0 views

  • A prominent form of voluntary organization in the United States from the nineteenth century through the mid–twentieth century, fraternal associations are self-selecting brotherhoods and sisterhoods that provide mutual aid to members, enact group rituals, and engage in community service.
  • Synthesizing primary and secondary evidence, this article documents that African Americans historically organized large numbers of translocal fraternal voluntary federations. Some black fraternal associations paralleled white groups, while others were distinctive to African Americans.
  • In regions where blacks lived in significant numbers, African Americans often created more fraternal lodges per capita than whites; and women played a much more prominent role in African American fraternalism than they did in white fraternalism.
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  • Rivaling churches as community institutions, many black fraternal federations became active in struggles for equal civil rights.
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