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Michael Eppolito

JAPANESE EVACUATION FROM THE WEST COAST 1942: APPENDIX TO CHAPTER III - 3 views

  • In the war in which we are now engaged racial affinities are not severed by migration. The Japanese race is an enemy race and while many second and third generation Japanese born on United States soil, possessed of United States citizenship, have become "Americanized," the racial strains are undiluted. To conclude otherwise is to expect that children born of white parents on Japanese soil sever all racial affinity and become loyal Japanese subjects, ready to fight and, if necessary, to die for Japan in a war against the nation of their parents. That Japan is allied with Germany and Italy in this struggle is no ground for assuming that any Japanese, barred from assimilation by convention as he is, though born and raised in the United States, will not turn against this nation when the final test of loyalty comes. It, therefore, follows that along the vital Pacific Coast over 112,000 potential enemies, of Japanese extraction, are at large today. There are indications that these are organized and ready for concerted action at a favorable opportunity. The very fact that no sabotage has taken place to date is a disturbing and confirming indication that such action will be taken.
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    Statement by General DeWitt
Michael Eppolito

Digital History - 15 views

  • “Those Japanese and other aliens who move into the interior out of this area now will gain considerable advantage and in all probability will not again be disturbed,” he said.
    • Michael Eppolito
       
      This might be a good quote to consider for "protection"
  • California faces the major problem with the Japanese on farm lands on the West Coast, the census figures reveal, as they are listed as owning 68 million dollars worth of farm lands here and only an additional two million dollars worth of farm lands in Oregon and Washington combined.
  • They left San Francisco by the hundreds all through last January and February, seeking new homes and new jobs in the East and Midwest. In March, the Army and the Wartime Civil Control Administration took over with a new humane policy of evacuation to assembly and relocation centers where both the country and the Japanese could be given protection.
  • ...5 more annotations...
  • No. 1—All persons suspected of espionage, sabotage, fifth column or other subversive activities. The FBI and intelligence services are rounding them up daily.

    No. 2—Japanese aliens.

    No. 3—American-born Japanese.

    No. 4—German aliens.

    No. 5—Italian aliens.

    After the military areas are cleared of Japanese, the general indicated, German and Italian aliens would be next in line for evacuation. However, German and Italian aliens 70 years of age or over will not be required to move “except when individually suspected.”

    Also exempted will be “the families, including parents, wives, children, sisters and brothers of Germans and Italians in the armed forces,” unless such removal is required for specific reason.

  • attempt to create a Japanese-Negro anti-white-race fifth column.
  • Nine replied, in effect: “No Japanese wanted - except in concentration camps.”
  • Along the entire Pacific Coast, and from the southern half of Arizona, some 120,000 enemy aliens and American-born Japanese were moving, or preparing to move, to areas in which the threat of possible espionage, sabotage or fifth column activities would be minimized.
  • “We are going to give these people a fair chance to dispose of their properties at proper prices,” Mr. Clark said. “It has come to our attention that many Japanese farmers have been stampeded into selling their properties for little or nothing.”
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    News papers from San Francisco
Michael Eppolito

Internet Archive: Free Download: Japanese Relocation - 2 views

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    Here the head the War Relocation Authority justifies the internment of Japanese on the west coast.
Michael Eppolito

Outcasts! : the story of America's treatment of her Japanese-American minority - 17 views

  • Four explanations have been advanced for the evacuation: military necessity, the protection of those evacuated, political and economic pressures, and racial prejudice.
  • Briefly, the justification of the evacuation as military necessity is as follows:
  • suggesting immediate removal of those of Japanese lineage as a racial group
  • ...11 more annotations...
  • Protection against sabotage and fifth-columnism were the announced military reasons for the exclusion of those of Japanese ancestry
  • On April 13, 1943, Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, the man who ordered the evacuation, told a House Committee: "It makes no difference whether the Japanese is theoretically a citizen. He is still a Japanese. Giving him a scrap of paper won't change him. I don't care what they do with the Japs so long as they don't send them back here. A Jap is a Jap."
  • "There are in the United States many persons of Japanese extraction whose loyalty to the country, even in the present emergency, is unquestioned. It would therefore be a serious mistake to take any action against these people"—San Francisco Chronicle, December 9, 1941.
  • Thus during the first weeks of the war the dominant tenor of news stories was for fairness and tolerance, restrictions applied equally to all enemy aliens, and there was no mention of total evacuation! If the military had sound reasons for it, they were not apparent nor put forward in the weeks immediately following Pearl Harbor.
  • On January 22, 1942, Congressman Leland Ford of California launched the campaign "to move all Japanese, native born and alien, to concentration camps."
  • Why treat the Japs well here? They take the parking positions. They get ahead of you in the stamp line at the post office. They have their share of seats on the bus and streetcar lines... I am for immediate removal of every Japanese on the West Coast to a point deep in the interior. I don't mean a nice part of the interior, either... Let 'em be pinched, hurt, hungry, and dead up against it... Personally I hate the Japanese. And that goes for all of them."
  • The "Protection" Reason for Evacuation
  • Salinas Vegetable Grower's Association
  • "We're charged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We might as well be honest. We do. It's a question of whether the white man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown man...and we don't want them back when the war ends, either."
  • he Japanese-American group in California alone controlled farm acreage valued at some $72,000,000; played a part in fishing; owned and operated many hotels, laundries, and restaurants; dominated Los Angeles fresh fruit and vegetable distribution, and captured some of the best bazaar trade in San Francisco's Chinatown. Their commercial interests along the Coast were valued at from $55,000,000 to $75,000,000.
  • "The reason for evacuation considered most valid by many persons is that of 'protective custody'--the Japanese must be taken into camps and guarded for their own protection. But what a breakdown of the Anglo-Saxon conception of justice in a democracy such thinking betokens... The very words 'protective custody' (Schutzhaft) were 'made in Germany,' not here. How could it accord with American justice that if a man were dangerous to his neighbors they should be put into custody rather than he?" --Fellowship, July, 1942.
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