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Garth Holman

Ways in Which Geography Impacted Rome's Development | Education - Seattle PI - 0 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      Here is one big advantage of Greece! What did they have that helped them have a huge powerful Navy? 
  • Rome's geography forced the Romans to rely on overland transportation much more than other empires. The absence of ports and small number of major rivers lead the Romans to build a massive network of roads.
  • 80,000 kilometers of roadways,
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  • transportation system made the city of Rome the critical trade hub
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    The seven hills.
Garth Holman

7th grade learning - Social Studies with Holman - 0 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      Nice touch of the italic to show your thoughts! 
  •  I feel bad for these people, I thought.  Here, the people don't even know how the discussion is going, but in the USA, voting takes place in open, public areas.
  • "You all could show your opinions if we had a democracy," I told them. "You know, 'of the people'.  
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  • Some people around me shook their heads in discontent.
  • The man answered, "A direct democracy is where all of the citizens have an equal say in the decision making process."
    "That would be amazing for us," agreed some of the other people.
Garth Holman

Spain and America: From Reconquest to Conquest - North Carolina Digital History - 0 views

  • In 1491, no European knew that North and South America existed. By 1550, Spain — a small kingdom that had not even existed a century earlier — controlled the better part of two continents and had become the most powerful nation in Europe. In half a century of brave exploration and brutal conquest, both Europe and America were changed forever.
  • Reconquista, or Reconquest, was not complete until 1492.
  • early 700s, Berber Muslims from North Africa, often called Moors, had conquered nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula
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  • superiority to their enemies who had rejected Christianity, and they developed rules of war based on that superiority — including the right to enslave the people they conquered. Once Spain was reconquered, Muslims and Jews were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled from Spain.
  • Reconquista was a brutal conflict fueled in part by devotion to Christianity — not just a war between kingdoms but a crusade against infidels.
  • three kingdoms: Aragon, a small kingdom bordering France on the Mediterranean Sea and focused on trade with Italy and Africa; Portugal on the Atlantic coast; and Castile, a large rural kingdom in the middle.
  • They were devoted to God, king, and queen; they were tough; and they were eager for wealth and glory.
    • Garth Holman
       
      The three G's: GOD, GOLD, GLORY
  • And after 1492, with the Reconquista complete, they were in the market for a new crusade. Conveniently enough, Christopher Columbus gave them one.
  • fascinated with the idea of Asia and its wealth.
  • first European nation to try to trade directly with Asia
    • Garth Holman
       
      The middle man is gone.  Portugal is getting rich.  Who is upset by this? 
  • During the Middle Ages, though, trade and travel between Europe and Asia stopped almost entirely.

    The Crusades, in which Europeans fought to retake the Holy Land from Muslims, brought them into contact with eastern cultures for the first time in centuries. They wanted spices, silks, jewels, gold, and other luxury goods from China, India, and the East Indies — the islands southeast of the Asian continent, including the modern nation of Indonesia. But east Asia lay thousands of miles away, across vast deserts and the Himalaya Mountains, and the road from Europe to China was controlled by foreign rulers and by middlemen who charged money to pass the goods along. As a result, by the time spices and other goods reached Europe, they were extremely expensive.

  • Columbus argued that the riches of China and the East Indies lay only 2,400 miles to the west of Spain — making the Atlantic Ocean about the width of the Mediterranean Sea
  • For years, Columbus failed to persuade England, Portugal, Spain, Genoa, and Venice to give him ships and men.
  • He reached the Bahamas instead, more or less where he thought the East Indies should have been, and after three more voyages to the Caribbean and the coast of South America he died in 1506 still believing he had been exploring mainland Asia. But Columbus’ incredible (and lucky) mistake turned out to be one of the most important events in the history of human civilization.
  • They named him governor of any new lands he discovered and promised him a ten percent share in their wealth, sent him to sea — and, quite possibly, expected never to see him again.
  • the human inhabitants of the “old” and “new” worlds developed vastly different cultures, languages, and religions; they found different ways of adapting to their different envinronments; and their bodies over hundreds of generations became resistant to the diseases of their different worlds. When the two great land masses were rejoined by European exploration, the resulting exchange of people, crops, animals, ideas, and diseases — called the “Columbian exchange” — changed both worlds forever.
  • had been isolated from each other for 10,000 years.
  • Within a hundred years this small European nation had claimed the better part of two continents
  • disease.
  • They go as naked as their mothers bore them, even the women, though I only saw one girl, and she was very young. All those I did see were young men, none of them more than thirty years old.… They do not carry arms and do not know of them, because I showed them some swords and they grasped them by the blade and cut themselves out of ignorance
  • They ought to make good slaves for they are of quick intelligence, since I notice that they are quick to repeat what is said to them, and I believe that they could very easily become Chirstians, for it seemed to me that they had no religion of their own. God willing, when I come to leave I will bring six of them to Your Highnesses so that they may learn to speak
  • Columbus believed he had every right to take their land and make them into “servants.
  • With the native population gone, the Spanish began to import slaves from Africa to grow their sugar cane
  • In 1519 Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico from Cuba with 11 galleons, 550 men, and 16 horses — the first horses on the American continent. Within two years his conquistadores, conquerors, had won control of the Aztec kingdom that spanned most of present-day Mexico and Central America.
  • One of Cortés’ soldiers had smallpox, and he started an epidemic that killed a third of the population of the Aztec empire.
  • Cortés for the deity Quetzalcoátl, or Plumed Serpent, who according to prophesy would return from the east to reclaim his kingdom — perhaps in 1519. When Cortés arrived — from the east, with fair skin, riding four-legged creatures never before seen in Mexico, wearing shining armor and looking for all the world like someone who wanted to reclaim a kingdom — Moctezuma feared that he might be Quetzalcoátl and did not immediately meet him in battle.
  • What Cortés and his men saw in Tenochtitlán horrified them.
  • The Spanish, more convinced than ever of their superiority, forced most of the people of Mexico to convert to Christianity. Priests burned Aztec books and destroyed idols and temples. Indigenous people were enslaved to work in gold mines. Disease reduced the population of Mexico from more than 20 million when Cortés arrived in 1519 to about 2 million by 1600.
  • By the 1600s, Spain was easily the most powerful kingdom in Europe.
  • We can estimate very surely and truthfully that in the forty years that have passed, with the infernal actions of the Christians, there have been unjustly slain more than twelve million men, women, and children. In truth, I believe without trying to deceive myself that the number of the slain is more like fifteen million.…
  • They attacked the towns and spared neither the children nor the aged nor pregnant women nor women in childbed, not only stabbing them and dismembering them but cutting them to pieces as if dealing with sheep in the slaughter house.
  • With still others, all those they wanted to capture alive, they cut off their hands and hung them round the victim’s neck, saying, “Go now, carry the message,” meaning, Take the news to the Indians who have fled to the mountains.
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    Reconquest to the Conquest of the new world. Some good primary sources here. 
Garth Holman

Online Tools Classes - Students For Tomorrow - 0 views

    • Garth Holman
       
      Hi
  • This three week (really 3-5 hour) course will set the stage for you to take any course we offer without having to learn new and different tools
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