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Garth Holman

Medieval education in Europe: Schools & Universities - 0 views

  • It is estimated that by 1330, only 5% of the total population of Europe received any sort of education
  • Even then education, as we understand it, was not accessible or even desired by everyone. Schools were mostly only accessible to the sons of high lords of the land.
  • In most kingdoms in Europe, education was overseen by the church.
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  • The very fact that the curriculum was structured by the church gave it the ability to mould the students to follow its doctrine
  • Unofficially, education started from a very young age. This sort of early education depended on the feudal class of the child’s parents
  • Even the children of serfs would be taught the skills needed to survive by their parents. The boys would be taken out into the fields to observe and to help their parents with easy tasks, while the girls would work with the animals at home, in the vegetable garden with their mothers, or watch them weave.
  • Children of craftsmen and merchants were educated from a very young age in the trade of their fathers. Trade secrets rarely left a family and they had to be taught and understood by all male (and unusually, female) heirs, in order to continue the family legacy.
  • Young boys of noble birth would learn how to hunt and swing a weapon, while the young ladies of nobility would learn how to cook
  • The main subject of study in those schools was Latin (reading and writing). In addition to this, students were also taught rhetoric – the art of public speaking and persuasion – which was a very useful tool for both men of the cloth and nobles alike.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset
  • University education, across the whole of the continent, was a luxury to which only the wealthiest and brightest could ever aspire
  • Since the creation of the first university in 1088
  • Students attended the Medieval University at different ages, ranging from 14 (if they were attending Oxford or Paris to study the Arts) to their 30s (if they were studying Law in Bologna)
  • The dynamic between students and teachers in a medieval university was significantly different from today. In the University of Bologna students hired and fired teachers by consensus. The students also bargained as a collective regarding fees, and threatened teachers with strikes if their demands were not met
  • A Master of Arts degree in the medieval education system would have taken six years; a Bachelor of Arts degree would be awarded after completing the third or fourth year. By “Arts” the degree was referring to the seven liberal arts – arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric
  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission
  • Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined
  • Historians today believe that this policy was another way in which authority figures attempted to control the peasants, since an educated peasant/villein might prove to question the way things were done and upset the balance of power which kept the nobles strong.
  • Students held the legal status of clerics which, according to the Canon Law, could not be held by women; women were therefore not admitted into universities.
    This explains the importance of education and how each group got an education.
mrs. b.

resourcesforhistoryteachers - 7.27 - 1 views

  • Besides the obvious differences in philosophies, there is a very big difference in geography that cause these differences. Ancient Athens was situated somewhat close to the coast; it was only about five miles to the port city of Piraeus (which became part of Athens with the building of the Long Walls), thus it was no more then a few hours of travel from Athens to the coast line, thus greatly increasing the ability to be a trade center. Ancient Sparta however is located at the shortest distance 40 miles from the coast, however the terrain is somewhat rocky and there is no real straight path to the coast line. This would have greatly impeded the ability for Sparta to become a major trading port
  • Spartan Government Typically classified as an "oligarchy" ( rule by the few), but had elements of monarchy, democracy, and aristocracy Two kings were usually generals who commanded the major Spartan armies. While both were capable military leaders one was usually considered the leader of the army. This was done mainly so that in times of war Sparta would still retain a leader if the other were to die in battle. The most famous example was King Leonidas, who famously was able to hold off the enormous Persian Army at the battle of Thermoplyae.Five overseers (ephors) ran the day-to-day operations of Sparta. These overseers held one year terms and were responsible for the education and conduct of all its citizens (The Essential World History, W. Duiker & J. Spielvogel, Second Edition, 2005, p. 76)Council or Senate (apella) of 28 councilmen. These men had to be over 60 years old and served lifetime terms. They acted as judges and proposed laws to the citizens' assembly.All Spartan males over age 30 could join the Assembly where they could show their support/dissent by shouting.
  • Athens Government Typically classified as a “limited democracy.” Also considered the “birthplace of democracy.” Athens held the first democratic state, developed in 507 BC.Principally made up of elected officials:Council of 500 made most of the main administrative decisionsThe Assembly was open to all citizens. This body passed laws and made policy decisions.Although many nations throughout time have modeled their governments on the principles of Athenian Democracy, it was not perfect. Only men were able to participate in the democratic assemblies, and this was only 10-20% of the population. Women, children, slaves and foreigners were not allowed to participate
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    • mrs. b.
      Why did Athens become seafaring?  
Yuke Z

Medieval Education - 3 views

  • All lessons taught in a grammar school were in Latin. Lessons were taught in a way that boys had to learn information off by heart. Whether they understood what they had learned was a separate issue! Books were extremely expensive in Medieval England and no school could hope to kit out their pupils with books.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset.
  • Discipline was very strict. Mistakes in lessons were punished with the birch (or the threat of it) In theory pupils would never make the same mistake again after being birched, as the memory of the pain inflicted was too strong.
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  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission. Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined.
  • Very few girls went to what could be describes as a school. Girls from noble families were taught at home or in the house of another nobleman. Some girls from rich families went abroad to be educated. Regardless of where they went, the basis of their education was the same – how to keep a household going so that their husband was well kept. Girls might learn to play a musical instrument and to sing. But the philosophy of their education remained the same – how to keep a successful household for your husband.
    Peasant Schooling
hmcphillips h

Renaissance -- Out of the Middle Ages - 2 views

  • more than enough money to meet their basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
  • leisure time to spend on education and entertainment.
  • As the fortunes of merchants, bankers, and tradespeople improved, they had more than enough money to meet their basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter. They began to desire larger, more luxurious homes, fine art for these residences, sumptuous clothing to show off their wealth in public, and exotic delicacies to eat. These desires of the middle class stimulated the economy.
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  • leisure time to spend on education and entertainment.
  • Bankers and accountants needed to understand arithmetic
  • knowledge of foreign currencies and languages
  • Reading was essential for anyone who needed to understand a contract.
  • reading for pleasure, learning to play musical instruments, and studying a variety of topics unrelated to their businesses.
  • Bankers and accountants needed to understand arithmetic. Those trading with other countries needed a knowledge of foreign currencies and languages. Reading was essential for anyone who needed to understand a contract.
  • Many Italian coastal cities became centers for trade and commerce, and for the wealth and education that ensued.
  • the Medici family, made their wealth as business people
  • Many Italian coastal cities became centers for trade and commerce, and for the wealth and education that ensued.
  • Florence.
  • made their wealth as business people
  • Medicis had the appearance of nobility.
    • Garth Holman
      So, what did the creation of a middle class do to society? How did it change society?  And how did their spending impact others?  Why is a strong middle class important today? 
    • jashapiro j
      The creation of the middle class stimulated society by having the new wealthier middle class buy expensive things. This impacted others because it made jobs for bankers (which led to learning math,) and made people around them want to buy more too. It is important to have a middle class today so we can have a balance.
    • Garth Holman
      What do banks do today?   How do banks help people today?  They want do you think banks did to make peoples lives better in the 1450's? 
    • jwoomer j
      Banks help people today by holding peoples money for them so they don't lose it or so that it doesn't get stolen as easily. Also, banks help you balance out your budget so you don't over spend. 
    • cglosser c
      Compared to banks today, banks earned people money, not hold on to it.
  • They lived in beautiful homes, employed great artists, and engaged in intellectual pursuits for both business and pleasure.
  • One of the cities that exemplified these new trends was Florence.
Sam A

Sparta - Ancient Greece for Kids - 1 views

  • Much less evidence survives about Sparta than Athens, but we do know that it was a military state. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders.
  • Sparta was the only city state which had a full time army. The Spartan men were well known for being brave and fierce, and they spent their whole lives training and fighting.
  • Spartans lived in harsh conditions, without luxuries, to make them tough fighters. Physical training and fitness was considered to be an important part of a Spartan child’s education. Girls did not fight in wars but they took part in physical activities because Spartans believed fit and strong women would have healthy babies that would be good soldiers. Boys went to live at an army barracks at the age of 7. Government Sparta had its own system of government which was very different from the other city states. Rule was shared between two kings, the Gerousia and the Assembly. Most citizens Spartans were either Perioeci (citizens who paid taxes, served in the army and were protected by Spartan laws) or Helots (people from lands conquered and ruled by Sparta who had no rights). The Helots Spartan citizens were given land which was farmed for them by the Helots. The Helots were treated as serfs (slaves) and had to give half their crops to their Spartan master.
    • Sam A
      Hi its Sam ;)
    • Rebecca S
      HI its Becca :)
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  • rta's powerful army is ready for war. Athens knows that it cannot defeat this army ... but it has a Navy and Sparta does not. The year is 430 BC. Poliphus and his family from Athens and Sparcus and his family from Sparta are thinking about the future. They each have different points of view!! Cool site!
    its cool!!!
John Woodbridge

Archaeologists might have found bone of England's King Alfred the Great - Yahoo News - 0 views

  • Tests have shown that a pelvic bone found in a museum box is likely to have been either that of Alfred - the only English king to have the moniker "Great" - or his son King Edward the Elder.
  • The bone was found among remains dug up at a medieval abbey in Winchester, southwest England, the capital of Alfred's kingdom.
  • The discovery comes less than a year after British archaeologists discovered the missing body of King Richard III, the last English king to die in battle in 1485, under a council parking lot in the central English city of Leicester.
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  • Alfred, who ruled the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, an area which covered much of southern England, from 871 until his death in 899.
  • Famed for military victories against ferocious Vikings who had invaded much of the north of the country, Alfred was buried at the Anglo-Saxon cathedral in Winchester but his remains and those of other royals were moved in 1100 by monks, ending up at the newly built Hyde Abbey. The abbey was dissolved in 1536 and the whereabouts of Alfred's remains and those of other members of his royal family thereafter became unclear.
  • human remains at the museum which had been discovered in a previous dig near the location of the high altar at Hyde Abbey between 1995 and 1999. Tests concluded the bone, about a third of a male pelvis, dated to between 895-1017 and belonged to a man aged between 26 and 45. As there were no other burials at the site in the Anglo-Saxon period, archaeologists concluded it had to belong to a member of the royal house of Wessex, and most probably due to the age, to either Alfred or his son.
  • However, more significantly, Alfred is regarded as laying the foundations for a unified England, and his passion for education and learning are seen a crucial in the development of the English language
    Discovery of the remains of King Alfred the Great of England
Garth Holman

Medieval Times - 0 views

  • women didn't even know the man before they wed.
  • ometimes able to choose their bride. Marriage back then was not based on love; most marriages were political arrangements.
  • The arrangement of marriage was done by the children's parents. In the middle ages, children were married at a young age. Girls were as young as 12 when they married, and boys as young as 17. The arrangement of the marriage was based on monetary worth. The family of the girl who was to be married gives a dowry, or donation, to the boy she is to marry. The dowry goes with her at the time of the marriage and stays with the boy forever.
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  • posted on the door of the church. The notice was put up to ensure that there were no grounds for prohibiting the marriage.
  • There were several reasons for prohibiting a marriage. One reason was consanguinity, meaning the couple was too closely related. If the boy or the girl had taken a monastic or religious vow, the marriage was than also prohibited. Other reasons that prohibited marriage, but were not grounds for a divorce, were rape, adultery and incest. A couple could also not be married during a time of fasting, such as lent or advent, and a couple not be married by someone who had killed someone.
Garth Holman

What are the barriers to creativity in education? - YouTube - 3 views

    What do you think schools and families will do to emphasize creativity?
Garth Holman

Medieval Life | HistoryOnTheNet - 1 views

    Overview of the Middle Ages.
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