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David W

Pope Urban II orders first Crusade - Nov 27, 1095 - - 5 views

  • On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II makes perhaps the most influential speech of the Middle Ages, giving rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to war against Muslims in order to reclaim the Holy Land, with a cry of "Deus vult!" or "God wills it!"
  • By the end of the 11th century, the Holy Land—the area now commonly referred to as the Middle East—had become a point of conflict for European Christians. Since the 6th century, Christians frequently made pilgrimages to the birthplace of their religion, but when the Seljuk Turks took control of Jerusalem, Christians were barred from the Holy City. When the Turks then threatened to invade the Byzantine Empire and take Constantinople, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I made a special appeal to Urban for help. This was not the first appeal of its kind, but it came at an important time for Urban. Wanting to reinforce the power of the papacy, Urban seized the opportunity to unite Christian Europe under him as he fought to take back the Holy Land from the Turks.
  • Urban delivered a rousing speech summoning rich and poor alike to stop their in-fighting and embark on a righteous war to help their fellow Christians in the East and take back Jerusalem. Urban denigrated the Muslims, exaggerating stories of their anti-Christian acts, and promised absolution and remission of sins for all who died in the service of Christ.
  • ...8 more annotations...
  • European nobles were tempted by the prospect of increased land holdings and riches to be gained from the conquest. These nobles were responsible for the death of a great many innocents both on the way to and in the Holy Land, absorbing the riches and estates of those they conveniently deemed opponents to their cause. Adding to the death toll was the inexperience and lack of discipline of the Christian peasants against the trained, professional armies of the Muslims. As a result, the Christians were initially beaten back, and only through sheer force of numbers were they eventually able to triumph
    • Garth Holman
      God Wills it  -- this was the call.  All who went on Crusade were to paint a RED cross on their shirt to show they were on a mission for GOD. 
    • Garth Holman
       So Jews, Christians and Muslims all "share" the holy land.  But the Muslim Turks closed the pilgrimage route and said they were going to attack their neighbors, so Byzantine Emperor asks for help and Pope URBAN II sees a way to gain more power.  And The crusades begin. 
    • Garth Holman
      Urban asks rich (Kings/Nobles) and poor (peasants) alike to travel and free the holy land. He did not tell the whole truth, but added a little to make it sound worse.  Then he promised "A FREE PASS TO HEAVEN" for all who go and destroy King.  The words Absolution (forgiveness) and Remission (take away) all sins=your free pass. 
    • Garth Holman
      People did not just go to "Serve G-D" but to gain wealth and power.  Christians only win one time and then lose the next six Crusades, but the impact of these events changed history forever. 
    • Nicole G
      Pope Urban II died in 1099 that was two weeks after the fall of Jerusalem and The Christians won and made it back to the Europe. 
    • parker g
    • Garth Holman
      This is the key phrase: promised absolution and remission of sins for all who died in the service of Christ.  What does this mean? 
    • Kanrry K
      It means that your sins will be forgiven.
    • David W
      This is the beginning of all wars.
Garth Holman

Pope recognizes Knights Templar - This Day in History - 1/13/1128 - 0 views

  • On this day in 1128, Pope Honorius II grants a papal sanction to the military order known as the Knights Templar, declaring it to be an army of God. 
  • the Knights Templar organization was founded in 1118. Its self-imposed mission was to protect Christian pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land during the Crusades, the series of military expeditions aimed at defeating Muslims in Palestine. The Templars took their name from the location of their headquarters, at Jerusalem's Temple Mount. For a while, the Templars had only nine members, mostly due to their rigid rules. In addition to having noble birth, the knights were required to take strict vows of poverty, obedience and chastity. In 1127, new promotional efforts convinced many more noblemen to join the order, gradually increasing its size and influence.
  • While the individual knights were not allowed to own property, there was no such restriction on the organization as a whole, and over the years many rich Christians gave gifts of land and other valuables to support the Knights Templar. By the time the Crusades ended unsuccessfully in the early 14th century, the order had grown extremely wealthy, provoking the jealousy of both religious and secular powers. In 1307, king Philip IV of France and Pope Clement V combined to take down the Knights Templar, arresting the grand master, Jacques de Molay, on charges of heresy, sacrilege and Satanism. Under torture, Molay and other leading Templars confessed and were eventually burned at the stake. Clement dissolved the Templars in 1312, assigning their property and monetary assets to a rival order, the Knights Hospitalers. In fact, though, Philip and his English counterpart, king Edward II, claimed most of the wealth after banning the organization from their respective countries.          
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