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nshore n

An Introduction to the Protestant Reformation | The Protestant Reformation | Khan Academy - 1 views

  • The sale of indulgences was a practice where the church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper (an indulgence), that certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.
  • Luther sparked the Reformation in 1517 by posting, at least according to tradition, his "95 Theses" on the door of the Castle Reformation in Wittenberg, Germany - these theses were a list of statements that expressed Luther's concerns about certain Reformation practices - largely the sale of indulgences, but they were based on Luther's deeper concerns with Reformation doctrine.
  • but none of these efforts successfully challenged Church practice until Martin Luther's actions in the early 1500s.
  • ...4 more annotations...
  • Pope Leo X had granted indulgences to raise money for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. These indulgences were being sold by Johann Tetzel not far from Wittenberg, where Luther was Professor of Theology.
  • He concluded that no matter how "good" he tried to be, no matter how he tried to stay away from sin, he still found himself having sinful thoughts. He was fearful that no matter how many good works he did, he could never do enough to earn his place in heaven
  • The Reformation was a very violent period in Europe, even family members were often pitted against one another in the wars of religion. Each side, both Catholics and Protestants, were often absolutely certain that they were in the right and that the other side was doing the devil's work.
  • It is also during this period that the Scientific Revolution gained momentum and observation of the natural world replaced religious doctrine as the source of our understanding of the universe and our place in it.
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    Very Good Understanding of the Reformation and Indulgences, without going into too much detail. 
cglosser c

Protestant Reformation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views

  • rotes
  • The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants.
  • The largest of the new churches were the Lutherans
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  • This, as well as many other factors, such as spread of Renaissance ideas and inventions, such as the invention of the printing press, and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, contributed to the creation of Protestantism.[1][page needed][2][page needed]
  • It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses.
  • The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe, such as the Black Death and the Western Schism, which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Reformation and the Papacy that governed it.
    • cglosser c
       
      Martin Luther had followers in the Reformation.
  • The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants
    • cglosser c
       
      The church faced big problems.
    • cglosser c
       
      This man's name was Martin Luther. He is an important figure in the Reformation.
  • Religious situation in Europe
    • cglosser c
       
      Peasants were involved in the Reformation as well.
    • cglosser c
       
      Martin Luther made a bible of his own.
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    Informational text on the reformation 
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    This is a wikipedia article explaining the Reformation.
Garth Holman

Martin Luther Biography - 0 views

  • His parents were from peasant stock, but had high ambitions for their intelligent, eldest son
  • Bachelors and Masters degrees in Theology. He was in his first year of Law School in Erfurt when an incident occurred that would change the course of European history.
  • Two weeks later, Luther joined the Augustinian Order in Erfurt; his father was furious.
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  • Many Christians of the late Middle Ages had a great fear of demons and devils, and were terrified of ending up in hell. Mortality rates were high and life was very uncertain due to disease, accidents, childbirth and wars. Luther shared those fears and his first years in the monastery he was tormented with the idea that all men were hopeless sinners in the sight of God and unworthy of salvation.
  • reason, he was sent to teach theology at the University of Erfurt, and in 1511, at the University of Wittenberg, where he received his Doctorate in Theology. In Wittenberg he was also the parish priest assigned to minister to the citizens of the town.
  • A major source of church funding during this period was the sale of indulgences. An indulgence was a "get out of purgatory card" that could be obtained for oneself or others by paying a certain sum to the church.
  • The Pope was selling offices and indulgences to get money for an ambitious building program which included the construction of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. The Pope's representative, the Dominican Father Tetzel, encouraged people to buy the indulgences with the jingle, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings The soul from Purgatory springs"
  • telling them their loved ones were crying out to be released from suffering.
  • He was shocked by the lack of morality and piety of the local clergy and by the luxurious lifestyle of the Pope Leo X, a member of the Medici family. Pope Leo was known for his expensive tastes and was fond of hunting, gambling and carnivals. The papacy was at a low point in its history and others had been calling out for reform prior to Luther.
  • He came to the conclusion there was no evidence in the Bible for believing the Pope had power to release souls from Purgatory.
  • He wrote out a list of his objections to the practice; he named 95 issues he wished to dispute.
  • On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his ninety-five theses, or points of discussion, on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. The document was in Latin and invited other scholars to debate the statements set out.
  • The 95 Theses were translated into German and widely distributed throughout Germany, courtesy of the printing press.
  • There is no question, however, that Luther wrote the list and sent a copy of it to Prince Albert of Mainz.
  • The reaction of the Church initially was to try and suppress the attack on indulgences by suppressing Martin Luther.
  • The protest against the indulgences set off a conflagration which, step by step, resulted in most of Northern Europe breaking away from the authority of the Catholic Church.
  • It was clear by this time that there could be no coming together on these issues, since the very authority of the Pope was called into question.
  • The Church did act to curb the worst abuses of indulgences, but it was too late.
  • Luther was given safe conduct to attend the meeting and defend his positions. At the Diet of Worms, Luther was shown a table with a pile of his books and other writings. He was offered the opportunity to recant, but refused. Luther's reply was written down as he spoke it: "Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason -- I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other -- my conscience is captive to the word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen." The printed document released after the Diet of Worms also contained the famous words, "Here I stand, I can do no other."
  • but he was now considered an outlaw.
  • declaring Luther a heretic and ordering his death.
  • He spent nearly a year there, writing furiously and fighting depression and numerous physical ailments. It was in a small study in the castle in 1522 that he translated the New Testament from Greek into German and profoundly influenced the form and standardization of the German language.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Maybe one of the most important ideas.  He gave the people the bible in the local language, so more people could read what the bible said...not have someone tell them.  See this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible#Surviving_copies  
  • in Luther's absence numerous leaders had sprung up, each with his own interpretation of doctrine, and most having far more radical views than Luther.
  • Priests wore ordinary clothing and grew their hair, services were performed in German, monks and nuns were leaving the cloisters and getting married. Some groups were smashing images and statues in the churches and dragging priests away from the altars.
  • He convinced a couple of the more radical preachers to stop preaching or leave town.
  • twelve who had been smuggled out in herring barrels.
  • However, he impulsively announced he was marrying Katharina von Bora, to the great surprise of his friends.
  • Many were inspired by Martin Luther's challenge to the authority of the Church to challenge the secular powers as well.
  • Martin Luther wrote an appeal to the aristocrats to restore order by force.
  • Both sides were angry with Luther: the nobles blamed him for stirring up the people and the peasants blamed him for encouraging the nobles to use violence against them.
  • Luther wrote to and met with other leaders of the Reformation, such as Zwingli, to try and produce a unified statement of belief for the reformed Reformation, but nothing came out of it because they were not able to agree on many of the doctrinal issues.
cglosser c

Protestant Reformation - Theopedia, an encyclopedia of Biblical Christianity - 0 views

  • "The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Reformation.
  • "In 1517, in one of the signal events of western history, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg.
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    A short explanation of the reformation.
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    This is another website explaining some of what we've been talking about.
criseida o

Reformation - 0 views

  • The Church was in disarray on the eve of Church
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    Explains the Renaissance and Reformation. A really good site for all topics during that time period.
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    reformation
Aman B

History: Reformation for Kids - 2 views

  • Renaissance Reformation History >> Renaissance for Kids The Reformation occurred during Renaissance times. It was a split in the Catholic Reformation where a new type of Christianity called Protestantism was born. More People Reading the Bible During the Middle Ages, few people other than monks and priests knew how to read and write. However, with the Renaissance, more and more people became educated and learned how to read. At the same time, the printing press was invented allowing for new ideas, as well as scriptures of the Bible, to be easily printed and distributed. People were able to read the Bible for themselves for the first time. Martin Luther
  • Renaissance
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    A easy to understand site.
Garth Holman

Coronation Oath, 2nd June 1953 - 0 views

  • Madam, is your Majesty willing to take the Oath?And the Queen answering,I am willing.
  • Archbishop. Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom
  • and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?
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  • I solemnly promise so to do.Archbishop. Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?Queen. I will.
  • Archbishop. Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
  • Queen. All this I promise to do.
  • The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.
John Woodbridge

Medieval Knight's Tomb Found Beneath Parking Lot - Yahoo! News - 0 views

  • Archaeologists who were on hand during the construction of a new building in Edinburgh uncovered a carved sandstone slab, decorated with markers of nobility — a Calvary cross and a sword
  • Scientists plan to analyze the bones and teeth to learn more about this possible knight or nobleman
  • archaeologists have already dated the gravestone to the thirteenth century
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  • Builders at the site expected they would find historic objects during construction. Before it became a parking lot (coincidentally, once used by the University of Edinburgh's archaeology department), the site housed the 17th-century Royal High School, the 16th-century Old High School, and the 13th-century Blackfriars Monastery, researchers said. Archaeologists also apparently uncovered some medieval remains of the monastery, which had been destroyed and somewhat lost since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century.
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    Story about an archeological find in Scotland
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