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Garth Holman

Thomas Becket - 0 views

  • In Medieval England the Church was all powerful.
  • The fear of going to Hell was very real and people were told that only the Catholic Church could save your soul so that you could go to Heaven.
  • in the church in Medieval England was the Archbishop of Canterbury and both he and the king usually worked together. 
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  • No-one was surprised by Henry’s choice as both he and Thomas were very good friends. They enjoyed hunting, playing jokes and socialising together. Becket was known to be a lover of wine and a good horse rider. Henry II loved to ride as well but his personality was troubled by his fearsome temper. He tried to keep his temper under control by working very hard as it distracted him from things that might sparked off his temper.
  • excommunicating him
  • For people in England , there was always the real problem - do you obey the king or the pope
  • Henry II also controlled a lot of France at this time. William the Conqueror had been his great-grandfather and he had inherited his French territories as a result of this. When Henry was in France sorting out problems there, he left Becket in charge of England - such was his trust in him. Becket became Henry’s chancellor - the most important position in England after the king.
  • Henry saw the chance to give his close friend even more power by appointing him Archbishop of Canterbury - the most important church position in England.
  • Henry hoped that by appointing his good friend Becket, he might have more of a say in how the Church punished offenders. He hoped that Becket would do as he wished and toughen up the sentences passed out by Church courts.
  • The post of Archbishop changed Becket. He dropped his luxurious lifestyle; he ate bread and drank water, he had a luxury bed but preferred to sleep on the floor; he wore the rich clothes of an archbishop, but underneath the fine tunics he wore a horse hair shirt - very itchy and unpleasant to wear. He gave his expensive food to the poor.
  • Becket asked the pope to excommunicate the Archbishop of York who had taken sides with the king.
  • He is said to have shouted out "will no-one rid me of this troublesome priest ?" Four knights heard what Henry had shouted and took it to mean that the king wanted Becket dead. They rode to Canterbury to carry out the deed. The knights were Reginald FitzUrse, William de Tracey, Hugh de Morville and Richard le Breton. On December 29th 1170 they killed Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. After killing him, one of the knights said "Let us away. He will rise no more."
  • Becket’s body was still on the cathedral floor when people from Canterbury came in and tore off pieces of his clothes and then dipped these pieces in his blood. They believed that they would bring them luck and keep evil away.
  • Where Becket died quickly became a place of pilgrimage.
  • Henry II asked the pope for forgiveness and he walked bare foot to Canterbury to pray at the spot where Becket was killed. Monks whipped him while he prayed.
  • It took 21 carts to remove the valuables from Becket’s shrine at Canterbury Cathedral.
    • Garth Holman
       
      What does excommunicating him mean? 
    • Garth Holman
       
      Yes, why would he do this?  Why would he pick a friend to the second most powerful position in England? 
Garth Holman

The Middle Ages | Feudalism - 1 views

    • John Woodbridge
       
      This shows that there were more than one type of monk or nun.
  • Working hard did not change your status. Your clothing, food, marriage, homes, etc., were determined for you. After the rank of king, the hierarchy was the nobles, the knights, the clergy (religious people), the tradesmen and the peasants.
  • You were born into a class of people and generally stayed in that class for your entire life.
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  • profoundly affected by the rulings of the church.
  • One of the most unifying elements of the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church.
  • In the Middle Ages, there was a definite structure in society.
  • Following the pope, in order of rank, there were bishops, priests, monks and nuns.
  • Bishops
  • Priests
  • Monks
  • were very holy and lived in a convent.
Lily S

The Medieval Church - 0 views

  • very rich and powerful
  • organized like a government with laws
  • job of praying for everyone else.
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  • Monks were often teachers who taught noble children
  • Some even had the
  • The windows would tell bible stories and the lives of the saints
  • made of stone
  • provided spiritual guidance and a place were people could get an education
  • Almost all
  • Monks lived in monasteries or abbeys. They worked and prayed. Women could also serve a religious life as a nun
  •  
    A good website on the Medieval Church
Garth Holman

Bishops in the Middle Ages | Middle Ages - 1 views

  • The Bishops being a key figure of the society and being wealthy by virtue of his position in the clergy used to live either in a castle or a manor
  • Every king was supposed to have one Bishop in his court for consultation.
  • The rulings of the clergy affected everyone during the Middle Ages.
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  • Bishops had become so powerful that it was mandatory for the king to take orders and consult the Bishop in everyday affairs over the state.
  • f you were born in one class of the society, you belonged to that class for your entire life with no chances of improving your status through hard work.
  • They were generally from a noble family or a wealthy family from some town.
  • He used to take tours around the country to many churches within the country. There was a seat reserved for the Bishop in every church in the country.
  • Listening to the plights of all the priests and clergymen below him; Levy taxes on the peasants; Settling of important issues such as annulment of marriage; Maintaining an army of his own to assist the king during war; Leading his army in the war was common in the Early Middle Ages for Bishops; Take care of the spiritual soundness of his diocese; Implement the code of the church in the diocese; Take care of the business of the church in their diocese and supervise the priests, nuns and monks in their activities.
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    tells about key ideas a being a bishop 
azheng a

The Middle Ages -- Arts & Entertainment - 0 views

  • rt and mu
  • sic were critical aspects of medieval religious life
  • Singing without instrumental accompaniment was an essential part of church services. Monks and priests chanted the divine offices and the mass daily.
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  • Some churches had instruments such as organs and bells. The organistrum or symphony (later known as a hurdy gurdy) was also found in churches. Two people were required to play this stringed instrument--one to turn the crank and the other to play the keys.
  • Medieval drama grew out of the liturgy, beginning in about the eleventh century.
  • hese dramas were performed with costumes and musical instruments and at first took place directly outside the church. Later they were staged in marketplaces, where they were produced by local guilds.
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    Arts and entertainment in the middle ages.
Garth Holman

Medicine in the Middle Ages - 0 views

  • the momentum started by these people tended to stagnate and it did not develop at the same pace until the Seventeenth/Eighteenth Centuries.
  • In Britain, as an example, most things linked to the Romans was destroyed – villas were covered up as the Ancient Britons believed that they contained ghosts and evil spirits. With this approach, it is not surprising that anything medical linked to the Romans fell into disuse in Britain.
  • Dissections of human bodies were carried out in these universities so anyone wanting to study medicine in the Middle Ages was not totally ignorant of facts about the human body.
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  • However, medicine became steeped in superstition and the Roman Catholic Church effectively dominated what direction the medical world took. Any views different from the established Roman Catholic Church view could veer towards heresy with the punishments that entailed
  • when the Roman Catholic Church stated that illnesses were punishments from God and that those who were ill were so because they were sinners, few argued otherwise.
  • Urine charts were also used to help physicians diagnose illnesses. Certain coloured urine indicated certain illnesses. Combined with a table of the planets, these gave physicians enough information to diagnose a disease. Once the disease had been diagnosed, a treatment was decided on.
  • letting blood.
  • Blood letting was a popular treatment for many diseases. Many diseases were thought to be caused by an excess of blood in the body and blood letting was seen as the obvious cure. When a large quantity of blood was required, the appropriate vein was cut. If only a small amount was needed, a leech would be used.
  • Diagnosis was also influenced by astrology
  • They believed that the human body and the planets were made up of the same four elements (earth, fire, air and water). For the body to operate well, all four elements had to be in harmony with no imbalances. It was believed that the Moon had the greatest influence on fluids on Earth and that it was the Moon that had the ability to affect positively or negatively the four elements in your body. Where the Moon and planets were – and a knowledge of this - was considered important when making a diagnosis and deciding on a course of treatment.
  • Remedies for diseases were still crude and based on herbs, potions or more drastic cures.
    • Garth Holman
       
      Heresy: is speaking out against the Roman Catholic Church and punishable by Death or excommunication.  How many people who do that?  
  •  
    Medical thoughts of middle ages.
Garth Holman

Medieval Art and Art History - 0 views

  • The medieval period of art history spans from the fall of the Roman Empire in 300 AD to the beginning of the Renaissance in 1400 AD
  • he Catholic Church financed many projects, and the oldest examples of Christian art survive in the Roman catacombs, or burial crypts beneath the city.
  • Medieval artists decorated churches and works for public appreciation using classical themes. For example, Roman mosaics made of small stone cubes called tesserae offered Christian scenery.
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  • Early Christian mosaics used muted colors like classical mosaics, but in the fourth century, mosaicists moved to brighter colors and patterns.
  • Romanesque architecture symbolized the growing wealth of European cities and the power of Church monasteries.
  • The Gothic style developed in the middle of the twelfth century and is named after the Goths who ruled France.
  • Human forms such as the Madonna and Baby Jesus evolve from large heads on small bodies in Early Christianity to abstract forms in the Romanesque era. In the Gothic era, the Madonna and Child are more naturalistic with tall, bony figures.
Garth Holman

Medieval education in Europe: Schools & Universities - 0 views

  • It is estimated that by 1330, only 5% of the total population of Europe received any sort of education
  • Even then education, as we understand it, was not accessible or even desired by everyone. Schools were mostly only accessible to the sons of high lords of the land.
  • In most kingdoms in Europe, education was overseen by the church.
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  • The very fact that the curriculum was structured by the church gave it the ability to mould the students to follow its doctrine
  • Unofficially, education started from a very young age. This sort of early education depended on the feudal class of the child’s parents
  • Even the children of serfs would be taught the skills needed to survive by their parents. The boys would be taken out into the fields to observe and to help their parents with easy tasks, while the girls would work with the animals at home, in the vegetable garden with their mothers, or watch them weave.
  • Children of craftsmen and merchants were educated from a very young age in the trade of their fathers. Trade secrets rarely left a family and they had to be taught and understood by all male (and unusually, female) heirs, in order to continue the family legacy.
  • Young boys of noble birth would learn how to hunt and swing a weapon, while the young ladies of nobility would learn how to cook
  • The main subject of study in those schools was Latin (reading and writing). In addition to this, students were also taught rhetoric – the art of public speaking and persuasion – which was a very useful tool for both men of the cloth and nobles alike.
  • Lessons frequently started at sunrise and finished at sunset
  • University education, across the whole of the continent, was a luxury to which only the wealthiest and brightest could ever aspire
  • Since the creation of the first university in 1088
  • Students attended the Medieval University at different ages, ranging from 14 (if they were attending Oxford or Paris to study the Arts) to their 30s (if they were studying Law in Bologna)
  • The dynamic between students and teachers in a medieval university was significantly different from today. In the University of Bologna students hired and fired teachers by consensus. The students also bargained as a collective regarding fees, and threatened teachers with strikes if their demands were not met
  • A Master of Arts degree in the medieval education system would have taken six years; a Bachelor of Arts degree would be awarded after completing the third or fourth year. By “Arts” the degree was referring to the seven liberal arts – arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric
  • The sons of the peasants could only be educated if the lord of the manor had given his permission
  • Any family caught having a son educated without permission was heavily fined
  • Historians today believe that this policy was another way in which authority figures attempted to control the peasants, since an educated peasant/villein might prove to question the way things were done and upset the balance of power which kept the nobles strong.
  • Students held the legal status of clerics which, according to the Canon Law, could not be held by women; women were therefore not admitted into universities.
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    This explains the importance of education and how each group got an education.
Garth Holman

LAW IN THE MIDDLE AGES - 3 views

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    Trial by battles, ordeals and the Courts (church, manor and royal) 
Garth Holman

History: Middle Ages Monasteries for Kids - 6 views

  • A monastery was a building, or buildings, where people lived and worshiped, devoting their time and life to God.
  • The people who lived in the monastery were called monks. The monastery was self contained, meaning everything the monks needed was provided by the monastery community. They made their own clothes and grew their own food. They had no need for the outside world. This way they could be somewhat isolated and could focus on God. There were monasteries spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages.
  • only people in the Middle Ages who knew how to read and write. They provided education to the rest of the world.
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  • place where travelers could stay during
  • helped to feed the poor, take care of the sick, and provided education to boys in the local community.
  • day in the Middle Ages was spent praying, worshiping in church, reading the Bible, and meditating.
  • different jobs depending on their talents and interests.
  • Abbot - The Abbot was the head of the monastery or abbey.
  • A part of this vow was that they were dedicating their life to the monastery and the order of monks they were entering.
  • They were to give up worldly goods and devote their lives to God and discipline. They also took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
  • Monks and nuns were generally the most educated people during the Middle Ages. They spent much of their day in silence.
  • A scribe may spend over a year copying a long book like the Bible.
Jack S

The Middle Ages: Feudal Life - 2 views

shared by Jack S on 20 Dec 11 - Cached
  • or safety and for defense, people in the Middle Ages formed small communities around a central lord or master. Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land. These manors were isolated, with occasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms.
  • n this "feudal" system, the king awarded land grants or "fiefs" to his most important nobles, his barons, and his bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiers for the king's armies. At the lowest echelon of society were the peasants, also called "serfs" or "villeins." In exchange for living and working on his land, known as the "demesne," the lord offered his peasants protection.
    • Jack S
       
      Property Takes a big role
    • josh j
       
      Religion takes a bigger role than property I think. :)
Cameron G.

The Middle Ages for Kids - Common People, the Manorial System - 1 views

  • If the manor land was sold or reassigned to a new owner, the serfs stayed with the land.
  • Serfs had many jobs on the manor including craftsmen, bakers, farmers, and tax collectors
  • They had to do the job they were assigned to do. 
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  • Serfs could buy their freedom from the manor, but where would they get the money?
  • If a new lord took over the manor, he would need the serfs for labor.
  • Peasants were free to leave if they wished
  • Peasants worked the land and made the goods in exchange for protection.
  • Other than that, their life was just like a serf's life.
  • A few peasants escaped the hard work on the farm by joining the church. But most lived and died on the manor where they were born.
  • Everyone had to pay taxes to the lord
  • To pay the crop tax, some crops went to the lord, and some they kept. To pay the bread tax, some bread they made went to the lord, and some they kept. To pay the coat tax, some of the warm coats they made went to the lord, and some they kept.
  • Everything was paid in barter. Coinage or money did not exist on the manor. 
  • People believed that the only way to get to Heaven was to follow the teachings in the Bible.
  • The common people could not read or write.
  • The priest told them who they must marry and when. You had to do everything the priest said if you wanted to get to heaven. 
  • peasants and serfs were mostly content with their lot.
  • work kept everyone on the manor fed and comfortable, including themselves. 
  • They were not slaves. These people could not be bought and sold. But they could not leave the manor without permission.
Jenny L.

http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year7links/life/foulfood.pdf - 1 views

  •  
    Explains about what people ate in the Middle ages
Aryeh C

Weird religious practices of the middle ages - 0 views

  • Puss-Drinking and Scab-Eating--The general populace scorned lepers for their appearance and disease. As an act of humility and caring, many female saints such as St. Catherine would care for these "untouchables" by licking away the puss in their wounds then eating the scabs. People considered these saints especially holy.
  • These men would take a ladder, climb up to the top of a ruined Roman column, sit down, and then kick away the ladder, vowing to remain there contemplating God until they died.
  •  
    These are some of the most bizarre medieval religious practices.
Garth Holman

KALAMAZOO 2011: Session 47 - Thursday, May 12: The Sacred and the Secular in Medieval Healing I: Images and Objects - 0 views

  • An example of an object used in daily worship was a board with pilgrim badges attached to it; these were homemade pieces made by the poor.
  • “Do-It-Yourself” reliquaries were also popular. A hollow cage of soft metal could be pulled open then the pilgrim chose and placed their own relic inside. Lockets, chains, and brooches were increasingly popular as portable and personal reliquary. There were also rattles, whistles, horns and bells sold at Churches and these were often used in processions. Some were inscribed with inscriptions to Mary and
  •  
    Higher level reading on the daily religion practice by the poor of soicety
criseida o

Reformation - 0 views

  • The Church was in disarray on the eve of Reformation
  •  
    Explains the Renaissance and Reformation. A really good site for all topics during that time period.
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    reformation
Garth Holman

Of Monks, Medieval Scribes, and Middlemen - 0 views

  • : In the early Middle Ages, the Church played a very important role in protecting ancient works, and monks were heavily involved in the “reproduction and preservation of the literature that had been inherited from earlier writers,—writers whose works had been accepted as classics.”
  • The monks who were not yet competent to work as scribes were to be instructed by the others.”
  • The copying of books was also slow, tedious, and very time-consuming; it took years for a scribe to complete “a particularly fine manuscript with colored initials and miniature art work.”
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  • it is, therefore, no surprise that monks sometimes jotted remarks about their frustration and relief in the margins, or the colophons, of their manuscripts. Examples of these remarks included “Thin ink, bad vellum, difficult text,” “Thank God, it will soon be dark,” and “Now I’ve written the whole thing: for Christ’s sake give me a drink.”
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    A more difficult read, but explains the life of Monks, Medieval Scribes and other middlemen.  
Garth Holman

Inside a Medieval Castle - 1 views

  • The rooms where the lord of a castle, his family and his knights lived and ate and slept were in the Keep (called the Donjon), the rectangular tower inside the walls of a castle. This was meant to be the strongest and safest place.
  • The outer wall of a castle was called Bailey. This was where buildings for the castle's cattle, horses and servants lived. Some of the soldiers needed to defend the castle might live in part of the gatehouse known as the Barbican.
    • Garth Holman
       
      What is a siege? 
    • mluxenburg m
       
      A Siege is an Attack on a castle.
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  • There were kitchens and pantries where food was stored for everyday preparation. The Great Hall and the bedchambers were there too.
  • The Great Hall
  • The Bedchamber
  • Kitchen
  • A wealthy knight, his family and guests ate well. Unlike most people, they had plenty of meat like deer, goose and rabbit. On Fridays and Holy Days meat was forbidden by the church, so they ate fish or eels. If there was a special feast, the people working in the kitchens would prepare wild boar, roast swan, or even roast peacock, served with all its feathers as decoration. Some of these would be caught by the lord of the castle and his friends while out hunting with their hawks.
  • Many castles had stone toilets built over holes in the outer walls. These emptied into a pit way below.
  • Medieval castles did not have running water, yet people did like to bathe at least once a year. In some castles there was a room next to the kitchen where they bathed in groups. The lord might have hot water brought to his bedchamber and poured into a big wooden tub, where he sat on a low stool in. The water might have perfume or rose leaves sprinkled in it. Soap was made of sheep fat with ashes and soda. Teeth were cleaned by scraping them with a hazel twig and rubbing them with a woollen cloth.
    • Garth Holman
       
      SEE NEXT PAGE FOR OUTSIDE OF THE CASTLE. 
aelepele a

The Middle Ages -- More About Homes - 1 views

  • Fenestral windows, with lattice frames that were covered in a fabric soaked in resin and tallow, allowed in light, kept out drafts, and could be removed in good weather. Only the wealthy could afford panes of glass; sometimes only churches and royal residences had glass windows.
  • In peasant families, the wife did the cooking and baking.
  • The peasant diet consisted of breads, vegetables from their own gardens, dairy products from their own sheep, goats, and cows, and pork from their own livestock.
Garth Holman

Middle Ages Art - 1 views

  • Byzantine Art was the name given to the style of art used in very early Middle Ages Art.
  • Byzantium Art and its effects on art during the Middle Ages.
  • The Roman Empire was spit into two sections - the Eastern and Western part of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire fell when the German Visigoth
  • ...12 more annotations...
  • Pietistic painting (religious art)
  • Artists were members of religious houses such as monasteries
  • There were no sculptures as these were looked upon as a form of idolatry
  • Sombre tones
  • Byzantine Art was totally flat - one dimensional. There was no perspective
  • There were no shadows
  • Figures in Byzantine Art were generally depicted front-facing
  • Byzantine Art featured long, narrow and solemn faces
  • There was no attempt to portray realism in sombre Byzantine Art
  • Early Middle Ages Art was initially restricted to the production of Pietistic painting (religious art) in the form of illuminated manuscripts, mosaics and fresco paintings in churches. There were no portrait paintings. The colors were generally muted.
  • The artists and painters were founders of the movement towards greater realism which culminated in the Renaissance art style.
  • Brighter colorsSculpturesMetal work in the form of bronze artMiddle Ages art in the form of stained glass windowsMove towards realismThe development of perspective and proportion in Middle Ages artThe use of shadows and lightNew ideals of naturalismCreation of a sense of pictorial spaceThe use of symmetry in Middle Ages artChanges in subject matter including the depiction of animals and mythological scenes
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