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Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Mapping EU attitudes: Conceptual and empirical dimensions of Euroscepticism and EU support. in: EU Politics vol. 12, no. 2, 241-266 - 12 views

  • Mapping EU attitudes: Conceptual and empirical dimensions of Euroscepticism and EU support Hajo G. Boomgaarden University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Andreas R. T. Schuck University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Matthijs Elenbaas University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Claes H. de Vreese University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract Public attitudes towards the European Union (EU) are at the heart of a growing body of research. The nature, structure and antecedents of these attitudes, however, are in need of conceptual and empirical refinement. With growing diversification of the policies of the Union, a one-dimensional approach to attitudes towards the EU may be insufficient. This study reviews existing approaches towards theorizing EU public opinion. Based on this inventory, originally collected public opinion survey data (n = 1394) indicate the presence of five dimensions of EU attitudes: performance, identity, affection, utilitarianism and strengthening. The study furthermore shows that different predictors of EU public opinion matter to differing extents when explaining these dimensions. In light of these findings, we suggest tightening the link, conceptually and empirically, between attitudinal dimensions and their antecedents.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Lubbers/Jaspers (2011): A longitudinal study of euroscepticism in the Netherlands: 2008 versus 1990 - 1 views

  • With a unique longitudinal data set covering a time-span of 18 years, we test to what extent euroscepticism evolved among the Dutch between 1990 and 2008. We compare Eurosceptic attitudes on the eve of the signing of the Treaty of Maastricht with attitudes after the Dutch ‘no’ in the referendum on the European Constitution. We find a strong increase in euroscepticism among the Dutch. This change did not develop evenly across the educational strata. We propose to explain these differences through the utilitarian, political cueing, political cynicism and identity approaches. Over the years, the less educated have become more cynical about politics and have come to perceive a greater ethnic threat than before, which explains their stronger increase in euroscepticism. In contrast to 1990, perceived ethnic threat was the main predictor of euroscepticism in 2008.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

02.09.10: Barroso blames capitals for plunge in EU popularity - 0 views

  • Faced with a plunging popularity of the EU institutions, European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso has blamed national capitals for not defending the European project during the economic crisis. The devastating results of a Eurobarometer published last week showing that support for EU institutions is waning across the continent are due to the economic crisis, argued Mr Barroso in an interview with the Italian daily Corriere della Sera. He said it is "normal" that citizens' confidence is dropping during such times.
  • "I admit that we should do more together in order to give confidence to citizens and consumers. But I also want to tell the truth: We won't solve the problems unless each nation sees the European project as its own," the Portuguese politician said. "In fact this is not the case now. When things go well it's their merit and when they go wrong it's Brussels' fault," he added.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

27.08.10: Europeans losing faith in EU - 0 views

  • Just 42% of Europeans say they trust the European Union, according to a new opinion poll, down six percentage points in just six months.
  • The survey also found that fewer than half of Europe's citizens see their country's membership of the EU as a positive thing, but the European Commission is clinging to the positive elements of the report, particularly on economic governance. Officials are presenting the new Eurobarometer as an endorsement of greater budget oversight from Brussels, pointing to the 75% of Europeans who said stronger coordination between member states will help weather the economic storm.
  • Notwithstanding the positive spin from Brussels, a deeper analysis of the report shows a crisis of faith in the Union. Just 49% of citizens view membership of the European Union as a good thing, while 47% said they do not trust the EU. Even prospective members have gone cold on the European project, with just 27% of Turks saying they trust Brussels. For the first time, the Eurobarometer included Iceland, which is currently in talks to join the EU. A startling 35% said they trusted the Union, while only 29% thought that Iceland would benefit from becoming a member.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

European Values Study - 0 views

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values. It provides insights into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about life, family, work, religion, politics and society.The European Values Study started in 1981, when a thousand citizens in the European Member States of that time were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Every nine years, the survey is repeated in an increasing number of countries. The fourth wave in 2008 will cover no less than 45 European countries, from Iceland to Azerbaijan and from Portugal to Norway. In total, about 70,000 people in Europe will be interviewed.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Tamvaki (2008): Legitimacy and EU Enlargement Politics - 0 views

  • In the aftermath of the most ambitious accession bargain, attention has been directed away from EU negotiations to the tricky task of selling the elite enlargement deal to the voters. Focusing on past enlargement rounds, this book explores the link between diverse elite motives for pursuing membership and relatively constant variation in EU public support. National elite attitudes to integration contain the clues to the explanation of why utilitarian and affective support has traditionally been higher in some countries than in others. EU public opinion does not simply reflect the economic interests and identities of individuals faced with an objective reality. Rather, citizens face an endogenously shaped world, filtered by elite opinions on membership. Drawing upon "flexibility," this book advances a model of "theoretical differentiation" distinguishing between rationally and affectively driven entrants. Empirically, the tenacity of "differentiation" in EU legitimacy is examined through the use of original and secondary data. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, this study aspires to further debate on enlargement and public opinion engaging scholars and EU practitioners.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Kaina/Karolewski (2009): EU governance and European identiy, Living Reviews in European Governance, Vol. 4, No. 2 - 0 views

  • This Living Review presents an overview of the research on European identity in the context of EU governance by focussing on central debates in the political science literature. It departs from the problems of disagreement between European citizens and their elites as well as the lack of a European demos. Against this background, the article discusses the functions of collective identity including the legitimation function and solution of collective dilemmas. Here, two perspectives pertaining to these functions are depicted: first, the issue of European public space and second, the integrative workings of European citizenship. Next, the article explores the conceptual and methodological problems of the research on European collective identity. In particular, it focuses on the conceptual ambiguity of the collective identity term and problems of operationalization and measurement. Following this, the article discusses the literature on identity technologies of the EU and identifies the shortcomings of identity technologies with regard to EU governance. Keywords:European identity, governance, legitimacy, democracy, public opinion, European public space
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

29.01.09: Majority of Czechs want Lisbon ratified - 0 views

  • A majority of Czechs want their parliament to ratify the Lisbon Treaty, according to a poll published on Wednesday (28 January). The number of those in favour of the treaty has grown among followers of all political parties and reached 64 percent – an increase of 19 percent compared to October, according to survey publisher STEM polling.
  • The Czech Republic currently holds the rotating six-month EU presidency and both those who understand the treaty and those who do not have said this fact raises their country's profile in Europe. This could explain their current stronger support for the Lisbon Treaty, the STEM analysts explain.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

12.01.09: Irish poll shows majority support for Lisbon Treaty - 0 views

  • A new poll suggests that a majority of Irish voters may back the Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum set to be held this year. The Sunday Independent / Quantum Research survey carried out last Friday showed that 55 per cent of the 500 people asked would support the treaty while 37 per cent said they would oppose it and 15 per cent said they were undecided.
  • These latest figures should a strong rise in support (plus 16%) for the charter when compared to a survey carried out by the same newspaper in December. Those saying they would vote against the treaty decreased by seven percent.
  • Ireland's deteriorating economy is likely to be an important factor behind the change of heart, with many still shocked and angered by last week's announcement that 1,900 jobs at the Dell plant in Limerick are to be transferred to Poland.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

24.11.08: Eurosceptic chancellor to take lead in Austria - 0 views

  • Austria yesterday (23 November) formed another grand coalition between the Social Democrats (SPÖ) and the conservative People's Party (ÖVP). But this time the new government is expected to be led by a eurosceptic chancellor.
  • A 200-page coalition agreement indicates that the government will fall if one party decides to push for a referendum on a new EU treaty. The Austrian Parliament ratified the Lisbon Treaty in April 2008 amid calls for a referendum from the right-wing opposition.  The prospective new chancellor, Werner Faymann (SPÖ), insists that a nationwide referendum should be held on any new EU treaty. But his future Deputy Chancellor Joseph Proell (ÖVP) insists that no referendum should occur against his party's wil
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Gallup Balkan Monitor - 0 views

  • provides news and views about the Western Balkans. It’s the home of the Gallup Balkan Monitor survey that continually monitors the views of the Balkans residents: from their living standards, happiness and attitudes towards the EU, to their employment opportunities, feelings about living abroad and the performance of their governments. With its partner, the European Fund for the Balkans, Gallup has developed a one-stop-shop for anyone requiring strategic insights into the Balkans.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Schimmelfennig/Scholtz (2008) EU Democracy Promotion in the European Neighbourhood. European Union Politics 9 (2): 187-215 - 0 views

  • How effective and relevant is European Union political conditionality for the promotion of democracy in third countries? This article reports the results of a panel study of 36 countries of the East European and Mediterranean neighbourhood of the EU for the years 1988—2004. The analysis shows robust and strong effects of EU political conditionality on democracy in the neighbouring countries if the EU offers a membership perspective in return for political reform. Absent the offer of membership, however, EU incentives such as partnership and cooperation do not reliably promote democratic change. The analysis controls for economic development and transnational exchanges as two alternative potential causes of democratization. Although economic and geographical factors have an impact on democratization in the European neighbourhood as well, EU political conditionality remains a significant influence
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Maier/Rittberger (2008) Shifting Europe's Boundaries: Mass Media, Public Opinion and the Enlargement of the EU; European Union Politics 9 (2): 243-267 - 0 views

  • This article demonstrates that public attitudes towards EU enlargement are strongly affected by exposure to the mass media. It reveals `priming' effects by showing that media exposure affects the standards by which individuals evaluate the accession of potential candidate countries. To gain a more refined understanding about media effects on enlargement attitudes, we analytically separate three different factors that underlie EU enlargement support for a given candidate country: its economic performance, its state of democracy and its perceived cultural `match' with the EU. Employing an experimental design, we probe the media-induced effects of these factors on EU enlargement attitudes.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

08.07.08: 82% of Macedonians expect benefit from EU membership - 0 views

  • 82% of citizens of Macedonia believe that the country would benefit from EU membership, which is much greater percentage than in the other two candidate countries - Croatia and Turkey. The majority of this group deem that a key benefit would be economic growth, followed by the maintenance of peace and stability in the country, a higher standard of living and new opportunities for employment, showed the results of the 69th National Eurobarometer Report.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

20.06.08 Eurobarometer Post Referendum Survey in Ireland - 0 views

    A nationwide referendum on the Lisbon Treaty was held in Ireland on 12 June 2008. After the result was known, a Flash Eurobarometer survey was conducted by Gallup, from 13 to 15 June, at the request of the EU Representation in Ireland. Altogether, a randomly selected 2,000 respondents, aged 18 and older, were interviewed by telephone. The main objectives of the survey were to understand the reasons for non-participation in the referendum, the respondents' views about the campaign, the reasons for the "yes" or "no" votes and the overall reactions to the result. Respondents were also asked how they judged the likely consequences of the referendum. The paper summarizes the most important findings of the survey.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

17.06.08: Irish No side rejects additional protocols - 0 views

  • The various and often conflicting groups that made up the multi-headed No campaign in Ireland want any European institutional interpretation of why Irish people voted the way they did to take on board their key demands. The groups, particularly those on the left, are worried that European leaders are already cooking up protocols on "non-institutional issues" that can be bolted on to the treaty to ensure its passage in a possible second referendum.
  • "A couple of protocols, whether on neutrality or taxes is not enough because the very heart of the Lisbon Treaty will not have been changed in any way," said Patricia McKenna, a former Green MEP for Ireland and leader of the People's Movement, one of the main No campaign groups.
  • On the weekend, the European commission organised a 'flash' poll of 2000 Irish voters to find out the reasons behind their vote. According to the Irish Independent, more than 70 percent of those who voted No did so because they thought the treaty could be renegotiated. The unreleased survey also found that many people who do not normally vote in elections turned out this time, that people who said they did not understand the treaty tended to vote No; and that increased immigration played a role in the No vote.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Maier/Rittberger (2008): Shifting Europe's Boundaries: Mass Media, Public Opinion and the Enlargement of the EU; European Union Politics Vol.9, No. 2, 243-267 - 0 views

  • This article demonstrates that public attitudes towards EU enlargement are strongly affected by exposure to the mass media. It reveals `priming' effects by showing that media exposure affects the standards by which individuals evaluate the accession of potential candidate countries. To gain a more refined understanding about media effects on enlargement attitudes, we analytically separate three different factors that underlie EU enlargement support for a given candidate country: its economic performance, its state of democracy and its perceived cultural `match' with the EU. Employing an experimental design, we probe the media-induced effects of these factors on EU enlargement attitudes. Key Words: enlargement • experiment • mass media • public opinion
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

02.05.08: Media content, concentration and pluralism in Europe in the digital age - 0 views

  • The 21st Century media landscape looks nothing like its incarnation of just 15 years ago, let alone thirty years ago. Advances in technology together with the liberalisation of legislation governing the media since the 1980s have radically changed the structures of the media in Europe. While there has been a proliferation of new commercial outlets – particularly within broadcasting and on the internet - ongoing mergers and acquisitions have sharply narrowed the number of companies in the media business to the point where the majority of outlets are owned by just a few major conglomerates, such as Bertelsmann, Vivendi, News Corp, Viacom and Time Warner.
  • Many members of the European Parliament, however, believe that the media, and journalism in particular, due to its role in the maintenance of democracy, is not a business just like any other business, and as such needs special protection.
  • In the report, she wrote: "[While] the primary concern of media businesses may be financial profit, media remains an ideological and political tool of considerable influence, which should not be treated solely on economic terms."
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  • The report also tackles the very latest new media developments – the ever-expanding blogosphere and increasing use by news organisations of user-generated content such as mobile video. In order that existing profession producers of content not be undersold by freely delivered but poorly produced content, the report recommends the payment of fees for use-generated content. In this way, producers or publishers would choose which content to purchase – professional or amateur – not based on which was cheapest, but which was of the highest quality.
Prof. Dr  Wolfgang Schumann

Hans-Joerg Trenz, Understanding Media Impact on European Integration: Enhancing or Restricting the Scope of Legitimacy of the EU? - Journal of European Integration, Vol 30, Issue 2, 291-309 - 0 views

  • Abstract The debate about the legitimacy of the EU and the possibilities for its democratization has addressed so far only rarely the question of the role of the media. An instrumental approach prevails towards the media, acknowledging that the so-called gap between the EU and its citizens is grounded in a communication deficit and that the EU should therefore strive towards a higher legitimacy in terms of public accountability, openness and participation, in other words of democracy. The article discusses these technical aspects of 'public-sphere building from above' in relation to the systematic constraints on mediatization that result from the inertia of the existing (national) media spheres. On the basis of this, an alternative understanding of mediatization and its ambivalent effects on the legitimacy of the EU will be developed. The proposal is that European public sphere research should focus on the more active role of the media as an independent variable that affects institutional choices and processes. Empirical results from comparative content analyses are discussed, which illustrate to what extent media have become an enabling and/or constraining factor on European integration.
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