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Lisa C. Hurst

Inside the School Silicon Valley Thinks Will Save Education | WIRED - 9 views

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    "AUTHOR: ISSIE LAPOWSKY. ISSIE LAPOWSKY DATE OF PUBLICATION: 05.04.15. 05.04.15 TIME OF PUBLICATION: 7:00 AM. 7:00 AM INSIDE THE SCHOOL SILICON VALLEY THINKS WILL SAVE EDUCATION Click to Open Overlay Gallery Students in the youngest class at the Fort Mason AltSchool help their teacher, Jennifer Aguilar, compile a list of what they know and what they want to know about butterflies. CHRISTIE HEMM KLOK/WIRED SO YOU'RE A parent, thinking about sending your 7-year-old to this rogue startup of a school you heard about from your friend's neighbor's sister. It's prospective parent information day, and you make the trek to San Francisco's South of Market neighborhood. You walk up to the second floor of the school, file into a glass-walled conference room overlooking a classroom, and take a seat alongside dozens of other parents who, like you, feel that public schools-with their endless bubble-filled tests, 38-kid classrooms, and antiquated approach to learning-just aren't cutting it. At the same time, you're thinking: this school is kind of weird. On one side of the glass is a cheery little scene, with two teachers leading two different middle school lessons on opposite ends of the room. But on the other side is something altogether unusual: an airy and open office with vaulted ceilings, sunlight streaming onto low-slung couches, and rows of hoodie-wearing employees typing away on their computers while munching on free snacks from the kitchen. And while you can't quite be sure, you think that might be a robot on wheels roaming about. Then there's the guy who's standing at the front of the conference room, the school's founder. Dressed in the San Francisco standard issue t-shirt and jeans, he's unlike any school administrator you've ever met. But the more he talks about how this school uses teach to enhance and individualize education, the more you start to like what he has to say. And so, if you are truly fed up with the school stat
Dean Whaley

iowaonlinelearning - Teaching Standards - 27 views

  • Creates a learning community that encourages collaboration and interaction, including student-teacher, student-student, and student-content (SREB D.2, Varvel VII.B, ITS 6.a)
    • Dean Whaley
       
      What I see in these is that many of these we should be doing already.
  • AEA PD Online Website HomeAbout UsFAQsCurrent InitiativesResearch & ResourcesInstructor ToolboxK-12 Online LearningProject OLLIE Current Projects • Transition Process• Marketing Plan• Job Descriptions guest · Join · Help · Sign In · Teaching StandardsProtected page Details and Tags Print Download PDF Backlinks Source Delete Rename Redirect Permissions Lock discussion (1) history notify me Details last edit by eabbey Mar 11, 2011 6:56 am - 26 revisions Tags none Iowa Online Teaching Standards Composed from Iowa Teaching Standards and Other Resources 1. Demonstrates ability to enhance academic performance and support for the agency's student achievement goals (ITS 1) • Knows and aligns instruction to the achievement goals of the local agency and the state, such as with the Iowa Core (Varvel I.A, ITS 1.f, ITS 3.a) • Continuously uses data to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of instructional strategies (SREB J.7, ITS 1.c) • Utilizes a course evaluation and student feedback data to improve the course (Varvel VI.F) • Provides and communicates evidence of learning and course data to students and colleagues (SREB J.6, ITS 1.a) 2. Demonstrates competence in content knowledge (including technological knowledge) appropriate to the instructional position (ITS 2) • Meets the professional Teaching standards established by a state-licensing agency, or has the academic credentials in the field in which he or she is Teaching (SREB A.1, Varvel II.A) • Knows the content of the subject to be taught and understands how to Teach the content to students (SREB A.3, Varvel II.A, ITS 2.a) • Is knowledgeable and has the ability to use computer programs required in online education to improve learning and Teaching, including course management software (CMS) and synchronous/asynchronous communication t
tab_ras

50 Best Education Technology Blogs You Aren't Reading Yet - 173 views

  • Early EFL: Leahn is located in Spain, where she works as a freelance language assistant teacher and as a teacher trainer in workshops for primary and secondary school teachers.
  • Box of Chocolates: Join this EFL teacher from Recife, Brazil, who is very passionate about teaching
  • Neslihan Durmusoglu: This blog reflects on the world of EFL and about being a 21st-century learner and teacher.
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  • Reflections of a Teacher and Learner: David Teaches kids at a private college in Turkey and he also is a distance student on the University of Manchester’s MA in EdTech & TESOL programme
  • An A-Z of ELT: This blog is managed by the man who wrote An A-Z of ELT in 2006, Scott Thornbury.
  • Authentic Teaching: This blogger has taught EFL in Brazil, and taught ELT for several years as well. He now is earning an MA in Education in London
  • Jeremy Harmer’s Blog: Jeremy is a writer and teacher/teacher-trainer for English to speakers of other languages, and he blogs about presentation.
  • Marisa Constantinides — TEFL Matters: This blogger runs CELT Athens, a teacher development center based in Greece.
  • Shaun Wilden’s Blog: Shaun has been involved in English language teaching for almost twenty years. He also maintains several online teaching sites including ihonlinetraining.net.
  • So this is English… This blog is filled with ideas, thoughts, discoveries, feedback and more about the teaching and learning of English.
  • Teaching Village: Barbara is an English Teacher currently living in Kitakyushu, Japan, and using Web 2.0 tools and virtual worlds.
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    Technology and Technologying - two words that seem to fit together perfectly today for most Technologyers and learners. So much so that a slew of new blogs have come on board to talk about education Technology - or, edTech. This list of the 50 best education Technology blogs are not inclusive, as there are so many new blogs available; however, if you look at links provided by many of these blogs to other edTech blogs, you may learn about even more blog that you aren't reading yet.
Don Doehla

Digital Citizenship - 79 views

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    "Digital Citizenship is a concept which helps teachers, teach leaders and parents to understand what students/children/teach users should know to use teach appropriately. Digital Citizenship is more than just a teaching tool; it is a way to prepare students/teach users for a society full of teach. Too often we are seeing students as well as adults misusing and abusing teach but not sure what to do. The issue is more than what the users do not know but what is considered appropriate teach usage. "
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    Digital Citizenship is a concept which helps teachers, teach leaders and parents to understand what students/children/teach users should know to use teach appropriately. Digital Citizenship is more than just a teaching tool; it is a way to prepare students/teach users for a society full of teach. Digital citizenship is the norms of appropriate, responsible teach use.  Too often we are seeing students as well as adults misusing and abusing teach but not sure what to do. The issue is more than what the users do not know but what is considered appropriate teach usage. 
Shannon Smith

Need resources to assist in creating a 21st century learner training/ professional deve... - 131 views

Thank you! This is great information! James McKee wrote: > Shannon, > > I was recently referred to this video of Michael Wesch who teaches cultural anthropology at Kansas State University. He ...

professional development 21st century learners technology

Melissa Middleton

http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Advocacy/Top_Ten_in_10.htm - 87 views

  • Establish technology in education as the backbone of school improvement
  • Leverage education technology as a gateway for college and career readiness
  • Ensure technology expertise is infused throughout our schools and classrooms.
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  • Continuously upgrade educators' classroom technology skills as a pre-requisite of "highly effective" technologying
  • Home Advocacy Top Ten in '10: ISTE's Education Technology Priorities for 2010 Through a common focus on boosting student achievement and closing the achievement gap, policymakers and educators alike are now reiterating their commitment to the sorts of programs and instructional efforts that can have maximum effect on instruction and student outcomes. This commitment requires a keen understanding of both past accomplishment and strategies for future success. Regardless of the specific improvement paths a state or school district may chart, the use of Technology in Technologying and learning is non-negotiable if we are to make real and lasting change.  With growing anticipation for Race to the Top (RttT) and Investing in Innovation (i3) awards in 2010, states and school districts are seeing increased attention on educational improvement, backed by financial support through these grants. As we think about plans for the future, the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has identified 10 priorities essential for making good on this commitment in 2010: 1. Establish Technology in education as the backbone of school improvement . To truly improve our schools for the long term and ensure that all students are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve in the 21st century, education Technology must permeate every corner of the learning process. From years of research, we know that Technology can serve as a primary driver for systemic school improvement, including school leadership, an improved learning culture and excellence in professional practice. We must ensure that Technology is at the foundation of current education reform efforts, and is explicit and clear in its role, mission, and expected impact. 2. Leverage education Technology as a gateway for college and career readiness . Last year, President Obama established a national goal of producing the highest percentage of college graduates in the world by the year 2020. To achieve this goal in the next 10 years, we must embrace new instructional approaches that both increase the college-going rates and the high school graduation rates. By effectively engaging learning through Technology, Technologyers can demonstrate the relevance of 21st century education, keeping more children in the pipeline as they pursue a rigorous, interesting and pertinent PK-12 public education. 3. Ensure Technology expertise is infused throughout our schools and classrooms.  In addition to providing all Technologyers with digital tools and content we must ensure Technology experts are integrated throughout all schools, particularly as we increase focus and priority on STEM (science-Technology-engineering-mathematics) instruction and expand distance and online learning opportunities for students. Just as we prioritize reading and math experts, so too must we place a premium on Technology experts who can help the entire school maximize its resources and opportunities. To support these experts, as well as all educators who integrate Technology into the overall curriculum, we must substantially increase our support for the federal Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) program.  EETT provides critical support for on-going professional development, implementation of data-driven decision-making, personalized learning opportunities, and increased parental involvement. EETT should be increased to $500 million in FY2011. 4. Continuously upgrade educators' classroom Technology skills as a pre-requisite of "highly effective" Technologying . As part of our nation's continued push to ensure every classroom is led by a qualified, highly effective Technologyer, we must commit that all P-12 educators have the skills to use modern information tools and digital content to support student learning in content areas and for student assessment. Effective Technologyers in the 21st Century should be, by definition, technologically savvy Technologyers. 5. Invest in pre-service education Technology
Janet Peters

Technology Integration Matrix - 156 views

  • The site includes 25 videos lesson examples in each of four core subject areas – math, science, language arts, and social studies. These lessons were videotaped in classrooms across Florida.
    • Lucy Gray
       
      Blahblah blah
    • Emily Mann
       
      In Chrome I cannot get this sticky to go away.  Why can't I change my settings to not view public notes? I am excited about this matrix and comparing it with Arizona's (AZTIM)
    • Janet Peters
       
      The notes are not Public they are from Diigo Education, which is why they aren't going away.
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    "The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) provides a foundation for professional development for Technology integration and a common vocabulary for talking about effective uses of Technology in Technologying and learning."
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    "The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) provides a foundation for professional development for Technology integration and a common vocabulary for talking about effective uses of Technology in Technologying and learning."
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    "The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) provides a foundation for professional development for Technology integration and a common vocabulary for talking about effective uses of Technology in Technologying and learning."
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    "The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) provides a foundation for professional development for Technology integration and a common vocabulary for talking about effective uses of Technology in Technologying and learning."
Kathleen N

Personal Technology Learning and the Technologying of Writing | Digital Writing, Digital Technologying - 1 views

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    Understanding and applying technologies to the teaching of writing - as well as understanding concepts associated with them such as copyright and fair use - has become the professionally responsible way to teach writing . Professional organizations such as NCTE NWP IRA ISTE the Center for Media Literacy and others have moved quickly and clearly in the past few years to show that integrating teach across content areas, including the teaching of writing, is critical for creating students who are literate in a variety of ways.
Patience Wieland

Innovations in Teaching and Learning Teach Conference - FREE - 0 views

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    In the greater Houston area: this is a free conference occuring in November of this year (so the warmer weather will be a nice break for out of towners) focusing on best practices in teaching and learning, and teach. Also an opportunity to meet other educators!
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    Learning takes place in many locations and within the context of a variety of forums. Instructors are challenged on a daily basis to find innovative ways of enhancing the Net generation of students learning experiences. Our goal is promote greater understanding of cutting-edge approaches, techniques and instructional methodologies online and in the classroom. The Teaching and Learning Teach Conference provides a forum for educators to share effective and innovative Teaching and learning models. This conference will explore and showcase excellence and innovation in Teaching that facilitates student learning and positively impacts student academic success.
Glenn Hervieux

Five Characteristics of Learner-Centered Teaching | Faculty Focus - 86 views

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    On the Teaching Professor blog, the author starts with: "In May I finished a second edition of my Learner-Centered Teaching book. Revising it gave me the chance to revisit my thinking about the topic and look at work done since publication of the first edition ten years ago. It is a subject about which there is still considerable interest." And that it is. Check out the five characteristics of Learner-Centered Teaching helped me to think about my own thoughts of Learner-Centered engagement as a Tech. Coordinator who loves Teachers and Teaching.
alexis alexander

Teaching in a Digital Age | The Open Textbook Project provides flexible and affordable access to higher education resources - 70 views

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    The book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when everyone,and in particular the students we are teaching, are using teach. A framework for making decisions about your teaching is provided, while understanding that every subject is different, and every instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching.The book enables teachers and instructors to help students develop the knowledge and skills they will need in a digital age: not so much the IT skills, but the thinking and attitudes to learning that will bring them success. [Scroll down for list of contents] Book release date (final version): 1 April 2015
Mark Gleeson

iTeach: The best 1:1 device is good Teaching - 11 views

  • Devices come and go, but progressive teachers who adapt will sustain longer than any device
  • Usually this conversation is focused on what hardware works best for teaching and learning. While this is an important decision to make, it should not be the focus. In fact, the best devices a school can employ are great teachers.
  • We have reached a point in education technology where devices are, for the most part, adaptable.
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  • the best device a school can roll out is a teacher who can adapt to new and emerging technologies, does not always require formal training for learning and staying current, and is not tethered to a product (PowerPoint) in order to teach.
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    As I mentioned earlier, the best device a school can roll out is a teacher who can adapt to new and emerging technologies, does not always require formal training for learning and staying current, and is not tethered to a product (PowerPoint) in order to teach. Education teach will continue to progress and part of this evolution will be for students and teachers to stay current with both curriculum and digital literacy. Even in the absence of teach, a great teacher will continually seek out ways to engage his or her students in great lessons, simulations or challenges.  
Matt Claxon

Moving beyond technology in designing online learning - 70 views

  • Some loved them, some hated them, and few were indifferent.
    • Matt Claxon
       
      This is just like my students with the screencasts.  Look for a way to give the TV-haters more options and relevant learning media.
  • At the time (and for many years afterwards) researchers such as Richard Clark (1983) argued that ‘proper’, scientific research showed no significant difference between the use of different media. In particular, there were no differences between classroom teaching and other media such as television or radio or satellite. Even today, we are getting similar findings regarding online learning (e.g. Means et al., 2010).
  • different media can be used to assist learners to learn in different ways and achieve different outcomes. In a sense, researchers such as Clark were right: the teaching methods matter, but different media can more easily support different ways of teaching than others
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  • Thus requiring the television program to be judged by the same assessment methods as for the classroom lecture unfairly measures the potential value of the TV program. In this example, it may be better to use both methods: didactic teaching to teach understanding, then a documentary approach to apply that understanding. (Note that a television program could do both, but the classroom lecture could not.)
  • many media are better than one.
  • The use of different media also allows for more individualization and personalization of the learning, better suiting learners with different learning styles and needs.
  • technology on its own does not lead to the transfer of meaning.
  • This of course is what we do with technology in education. We try either to incorporate new technology into old formats, as with clickers and lecture capture, or we try to create the classroom in virtual space, as we do with learning management systems. What we are still developing but not yet clearly recognizing are formats, symbols systems and organizational structures that exploit the unique characteristics of the Internet as a medium.
  • Given the need to create and interpret meaning when using media, trying to use computers to replace or substitute for humans in the education process is likely to be a major mistake, at least until computers have much greater facility to recognize, understand and apply semantics, value systems, and organizational factors,
  • it is equally a mistake to rely only on the symbol systems, cultural values and organizational structures of classroom teaching as the means of judging the effectiveness or appropriateness of the Internet as an educational medium.
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    Defines the difference between technology and media and provides information (based on academic experience) about how to most effectively create online lessons and media.
Jeff Andersen

What Teachers That Use Teach Believe - - 61 views

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    What do teachers that use teach believe (as it pertains to teaching with teach)? This will read a lot like a pro-education teach post because it (more or less) is. I tried to get in the head of both teachers skeptical of "edtech" and teachers that have embraced it full-on. I've speculated before why some teachers are against teach in learning. This time I thought I'd take a look at the other side and see what kind of beliefs a teacher that uses teach with vision, expertise, or enthusiasm might believe. Of course, not all of these will be true for all teachers. Many of these can be thought of as underlying assumptions of teach use in learning. It doesn't mean, though, that these statements are all accurate. This is-as is all reality-a matter of interpretation.
Natalie Morris

Educational Leadership:Teaching Screenagers:Screenagers: Making the Connections - 78 views

  • February 2011 | Volume 68 | Number 5 Teaching Screenagers     Pages 7-7 Screenagers: Making the Connections Marge Scherer "Education has to change. We can't pull kids into learning in school if they are engaged in a different world outside school." "If you don't know how to use Teach in class, you are in trouble. But, of course, Teach is a double-edged sword. You can use it poorly, or you can use it well." The principals speaking were two of the candidates for the ASCD Outstanding Young Educator Award, which will be presented in March at ASCD's Annual Conference in San Francisco. A group of us were interviewing 13 finalists—both administrators and Teachers—over the course of a few weeks, and we were talking to them about their leadership, their creativity, their whole child philosophy, their impact on student achievement, and, of course, their Teach use. All the educators spoke to us via Adobe ConnectPro, a two-way Teach that allowed us to see, hear, and record them in their schools—whether in New York, Oregon, the Philippines, or places in between—while they viewed us in our meeting room in Alexandria, Virginia.
  • February 2011 | Volume 68 | Number 5 Teaching Screenagers     Pages 7-7 Screenagers: Making the Connections Marge Scherer "Education has to change. We can't pull kids into learning in school if they are engaged in a different world outside school." "If you don't know how to use Teach in class, you are in trouble. But, of course, Teach is a double-edged sword. You can use it poorly, or you can use it well." The principals speaking were two of the candidates for the ASCD Outstanding Young Educator Award, which will be presented in March at ASCD's Annual Conference in San Francisco. A group of us were interviewing 13 finalists—both administrators and Teachers—over the course of a few weeks, and we were talking to them about their leadership, their creativity, their whole child philosophy, their impact on student achievement, and, of course, their Teach use. All the educators spoke to us via Adobe ConnectPro, a two-way Teach that allowed us to see, hear, and record them in their schools—whether in New York, Oregon, the Philippines, or places in between—while they viewed us in our meeting room in Alexandria, Virginia.
  • February 2011 | Volume 68 | Number 5 Teaching Screenagers     Pages 7-7 Screenagers: Making the Connections Marge Scherer "Education has to change. We can't pull kids into learning in school if they are engaged in a different world outside school." "If you don't know how to use Teach in class, you are in trouble. But, of course, Teach is a double-edged sword. You can use it poorly, or you can use it well." The principals speaking were two of the candidates for the ASCD Outstanding Young Educator Award, which will be presented in March at ASCD's Annual Conference in San Francisco. A group of us were interviewing 13 finalists—both administrators and Teachers—over the course of a few weeks, and we were talking to them about their leadership, their creativity, their whole child philosophy, their impact on student achievement, and, of course, their Teach use. All the educators spoke to us via Adobe ConnectPro, a two-way Teach that allowed us to see, hear, and record them in their schools—whether in New York, Oregon, the Philippines, or places in between—while they viewed us in our meeting room in Alexandria, Virginia.
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    We'll take a look at this article tomorrow in our session.
tab_ras

The Sad Reality Of Education Technology | Edudemic - 100 views

  • This technological revolution is different; it has the potential to fundamentally change the way we teach and the way students learn.
  • The sad reality is that most schools still believe that they are “teaching with teach” because they have a computer lab where they teach students important skills like word processing and how to create Power Point presentations.
  • we need to teach them how to find information and more importantly what to do with the information that they find
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  • It’s no longer about who has the most information in their heads, it’s about who can find that information the fastest and who can do something with the information that they find.
  • The only way to do this is to make the fundamental change from teaching how to use teach to using teach to learn.
  • This model is fundamentally flawed because it teaches our students to be passive participants in the learning process.
  • With the advent of personal technology devices, we have the best opportunity of our careers to help students become more active participants in the learning process.
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    I actually think this is way over-hyped. A textbook is a great source of information, the web is a great source of information. Unless you can comprehend what is being said the method of delivery of the information is not very important. As was mentioned above - being able to do something with the information has always been the important point. There are times when I am sure that we could do better with a piece of chalk at the blackboard - I learn a lot from making demos in Mathematica and using PHET active java apps for chemistry and physics - the students enjoy them, but how much do they learn? There is plenty of evidence that until you sit down and work out the problems in a course you haven't learned much. I suspect much of this is driven by the prospect of sales of electronics - there is nothing you can do on a tablet that you shouldn't be able to do on a laptop. Especially with Win 8 coming and laptops with touch screens....
Marge Runkle

Dangerously Irrelevant: Top posts - 1 views

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    Scott McLeod - Ruminations on technology, leadership, and the future of our schools. academia, academic, administration, administrator, administrators, assistant principals, CASTLE, college, colleges, district, districts, edublog, edublogosphere, edublogs, education, educational administration, educational leadership, educational technology, educational technology leadership, higher education, leaders, leadership, leadership development, leadership preparation, leadership training, learners, learning, McLeod, postsecondary, principal, principals, professional development, school, school administration, school administrator, school administrators, school districts, school leaders, school principals, school superintendents, schools, Scott McLeod, scottmcleod, staff development, student, students, superintendent, superintendents, technologyer, technologyers, technologying, technology, technology coordinators, technology integration, technology leadership, training, UCEA, universities, university
Roland Gesthuizen

Eric Sheninger: Common Misunderstandings of Educators Who Fear Technology - 113 views

  • Don't let fear based on misconception prevent you from creating a more student-centered, innovative learning culture. Rest assured, everything else will fall into place.
  • The fear of not being able to meet national and state standards, as well as mandates, leaves no time in the minds of many educators to either work technology into lessons, the will to do so, or the desire to learn how to. Current reform efforts placing an obscene emphasis on standardized tests are expounding the situation
  • With budget cuts across the country putting a strain on the financial resources of districts and schools, decision makers have become fearful of allocating funds to purchase and maintain current infrastructure
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  • Many teachers and administrators alike often fear how students can be appropriately assessed in teach-rich learning environments. This fear has been established as a result of a reliance on transitional methods of assessment as the only valid means to measure learning
  • For technology to be not only integrated effectively, but also embraced, a culture needs to be established where technologyers and administrators are no longer fearful of giving up a certain amount of control to students. The issue of giving up control seems to always raise the fear level, even amongst many of the best technologyers, as schools have been rooted in structures to maintain it at all costs
  • With the integration of technology comes change. With change comes the inevitable need to provide quality professional development. Many educators fear technology as they feel there is not, or will not be, the appropriate level of training to support implementation
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    "Even as we are seeing more schools and educators transform the way they teach and learn with teach, many more are not. teach is often viewed either as a frill or a tool not worth its weight in gold. Opinions vary on the merits of educational teach, but common themes seem to have emerged. Some of the reasons for not embracing teach have to do with several misconceptions revolving around fear."
Roland Gesthuizen

Many-to-One vs. One-to-Many: An Opinionated Guide to Educational Technology - The American Magazine - 9 views

  • MOOCs do not benefit most of those who try them. Students differ in their cognitive abilities and learning styles. Even within a relatively homogenous school, you will see students put into separate tracks. If we do not teach the same course to students in a single high school, why would we expect one teaching style to fit all in an unsorted population of tens of thousands?
  • I believe that the future of teaching is not one-to-many. Instead, it is many-to-one. By many-to-one, I mean that one student receives personalized instruction that comes from many educators. To make that work, teach must act as an intermediary, taking the information from the educators and customizing it to fit the student's knowledge, ability, and even his or her emotional state.
  • There are many horses in the educational technology race. The ones to bet on are adaptive textbooks and independent certification.
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  • I am optimistic about tablets in large part because I believe that a magic bullet in educational technology is the adaptive textbook. By that, I mean an electronic textbook that adjusts to the cognitive ability and learning style of the student. Adaptive textbooks will query students in order to make sure that they understand what they have been studying. They will also respond to student queries. Adaptive textbooks will implement the many-to-one technologying model.
  • I do not believe that educators fully understand the process of social learning in the classroom. We do not know exactly what factors make the difference between a classroom where students are of significant help to one another and one where students provide little assistance or even hold one another back
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    "This essay will explain why I label various technologies as winners, losers, and magic bullets in the table below. My opinions are not based on exhaustive research. They are based on my experience both as a high school teacher and as an entrepreneur." My evaluations are based on whether I view these technologies as supporting a model of education that is one-to-many or a model that is many-to-one. The latter is the model I prefer, as will become clear in the rest of this essay.
Mark Swartz

Role and Function of Theory in Online Education Development and Delivery - 3 views

  • According to Bonk and Reynolds (1997), to promote higher-order thinking on the Web, online learning must create challenging activities that enable learners to link new information to old, acquire meaningful knowledge, and use their metacognitive abilities; hence, it is the instructional strategy and not the technology tha
  • According to Bonk and Reynolds (1997), to promote higher-order thinking on the Web, online learning must create challenging activities that enable learners to link new information to old, acquire meaningful knowledge, and use their metacognitive abilities; hence, it is the instructional strategy and not the technology that influences the quality of learning.
  • However, it is not the computer per se that makes students learn, but the design of the real-life models and simulations, and the students' interaction with those models and simulations. The computer is merely the vehicle that provides the processing capability and delivers the instruction to learners (Clark, 2001).
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  • Online learning allows for flexibility of access, from anywhere and usually at anytime—essentially, it allows participants to collapse time and space (Cole, 2000)—however, the learning materials must be designed properly to engage the learner and promote learning.
  • Cognitive psychology claims that learning involves the use of memory, motivation, and thinking, and that reflection plays an important part in learning.
  • The development of effective online learning materials should be based on proven and sound learning theories.
  • Early computer learning systems were designed based on a behaviorist approach to learning. The behaviorist school of thought, influenced by Thorndike (1913), Pavlov (1927), and Skinner (1974), postulates that learning is a change in observable behavior caused by external stimuli in the environment (Skinner, 1974).
  • Therefore, before any learning materials are developed, educators must, tacitly or explicitly, know the principles of learning and how students learn.
  • Learners should be told the explicit outcomes of the learning so that they can set expectations and can judge for themselves whether or not they have achieved the outcome of the online lesson. 2.  Learners must be tested to determine whether or not they have achieved the learning outcome. Online testing or other forms of testing and assessment should be integrated into the learning sequence to check the learner's achievement level and to provide appropriate feedback. 3.  Learning materials must be sequenced appropriately to promote learning. The sequencing could take the form of simple to complex, known to unknown, and knowledge to application. 4.  Learners must be provided with feedback so that they can monitor how they are doing and take corrective action if required.
  • The design of online learning materials can include principles from all three. According to Ertmer and Newby (1993), the three schools of thought can in fact be used as a taxonomy for learning. Behaviorists' strategies can be used to teach the “what” (facts), cognitive strategies can be used to teach the “how” (processes and principles), and constructivist strategies can be used to teach the “why” (higher level thinking that promotes personal meaning and situated and contextual learning).
  • The behaviorist school sees the mind as a “black box,” in the sense that a response to a stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the effect of thought processes occurring in the mind.
  • Constructivist theorists claim that learners interpret information and the world according to their personal reality, and that they learn by observation, processing, and interpretation, and then personalize the information into personal knowledge (Cooper, 1993; Wilson, 1997).
  • Cognitivists see learning as an internal process that involves memory, thinking, reflection, abstraction, motivation, and meta-cognition.
  • Online instruction must use strategies to allow learners to attend to the learning materials so that they can be transferred from the senses to the sensory store and then to working memory.
  • Online learning strategies must present the materials and use strategies to enable students to process the materials efficiently.
  • information should be organized or chunked in pieces of appropriate size to facilitate processing.
  • Use advance organizers to activate an existing cognitive structure or to provide the information to incorporate the details of the lesson (Ausubel, 1960).
  • Use pre-instructional questions to set expectations and to activate the learners' existing knowledge structure.
  • Use prerequisite test questions to activate the prerequisite knowledge structure required for learning the new materials.
  • Attention: Capture the learners' attention at the start of the lesson and maintain it throughout the lesson. The online learning materials must include an activity at the start of the learning session to connect with the learners. Relevance: Inform learners of the importance of the lesson and how taking the lesson could benefit them. Strategies could include describing how learners will benefit from taking the lesson, and how they can use what they learn in real-life situations. This strategy helps to contextualize the learning and make it more meaningful, thereby maintaining interest throughout the learning session. Confidence: Use strategies such as designing for success and informing learners of the lesson expectations. Design for success by sequencing from simple to complex, or known to unknown, and use a competency-based approach where learners are given the opportunity to use different strategies to complete the lesson. Inform learners of the lesson outcome and provide ongoing encouragement to complete the lesson. Satisfaction: Provide feedback on performance and allow learners to apply what they learn in real-life situations. Learners like to know how they are doing, and they like to contextualize what they are learning by applying the information in real life.
  • The cognitive school recognizes the importance of individual differences, and of including a variety of learning strategies in online instruction to accommodate those differences
  • The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Kolb, 1984) looks at how learners perceive and process information, whereas the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1978) uses dichotomous scales to measure extroversion versus introversion, sensing versus intuition, thinking versus feeling, and judging versus perception. In the following discussion, we consider the Kolb Learning Style Inventory.
  • To facilitate deep processing, learners should be asked to generate the information maps during the learning process or as a summary activity after the lesson (Bonk & Reynolds, 1997).
  • Online strategies that facilitate the transfer of learning should be used to encourage application in different and real-life situations.
  • Constructivists see learners as being active rather than passive.
  • it is the individual learner's interpretation and processing of what is received through the senses that creates knowledge.
  • “the process of using a prior interpretation to construe a new or revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action” (p. 12).
  • Learning should be an active process. Keeping learners active doing meaningful activities results in high-level processing, which facilitates the creation of personalized meaning. Asking learners to apply the information in a practical situation is an active process, and facilitates personal interpretation and relevance.
  • Learners should construct their own knowledge rather than accepting that given by the instructor.
  • Collaborative and cooperative learning should be encouraged to facilitate constructivist learning (H
  • When assigning learners for group work, membership should be based on the expertise level and learning style of individual group members, so that individual team members can benefit from one another's strengths.
  •   Learners should be given control of the learning process
  • Learners should be given time and opportunity to reflect.
  • Learning should be made meaningful for learners. The learning materials should include examples that relate to students, so that they can make sense of the information.
  • Learning should be interactive to promote higher-level learning and social presence, and to help develop personal meaning. According to Heinich et al. (2002), learning is the development of new knowledge, skills, and attitudes as the learner interacts with information and the environment. Interaction is also critical to creating a sense of presence and a sense of community for online learners, and to promoting transformational learning (Murphy & Cifuentes, 2001). Learners receive the learning materials through the technology, process the information, and then personalize and contextualize the information.
  • Figure 1-6. Components of effective online learning.
  • Behaviorist strategies can be used to teach the facts (what); cognitivist strategies to teach the principles and processes (how); and constructivist strategies to teach the real-life and personal applications and contextual learning. There is a shift toward constructive learning, in which learners are given the opportunity to construct their own meaning from the information presented during the online sessions. The use of learning objects to promote flexibility and reuse of online materials to meet the needs of individual learners will become more common in the future. Online learning materials will be designed in small coherent segments, so that they can be redesigned for different learners and different contexts. Finally, online learning will be increasingly diverse to respond to different learning cultures, styles, and motivations.
  • Online instruction occurs when learners use the Web to go through the sequence of instruction, to complete the learning activities, and to achieve learning outcomes and objectives (Ally, 2002; Ritchie & Hoffman, 1997).
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    From:  FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY FOR ONLINE LEARNING
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