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Can Mary Shelley's Frankenstein be read as an early research ethics text? | Medical Humanities - 7 views

shared by jnet0124 on 13 Nov 17 - No Cached
  • Can Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein be read as an early research ethics text?
    • jnet0124
      SEE HEAR
  • Frankenstein is an early and balanced text on the ethics of research upon human subjects and that it provides insights that are as valid today as when the novel was written.
  • Mary Shelley conceived the idea for and started writing Frankenstein in 1816 and it was first published in 1818.1 In its historical context, the earlier 17th and 18th centuries had seen the early signs of the rise of science and experimentation. Francis Bacon (1561–1626) had laid the theoretical foundations in his “Great Insauration”2 and scientists such as Boyle, Newton, and Hooke developed the experimental methods. Sir Robert Talbor, a 17th century apothecary and one of the key figures in developing the use of quinine to treat fevers, underlined this: “the most plausible reasons unless backed by some demonstrable experiments seem but suppositions or conjectures”.3
  • ...5 more annotations...
  • The 18th century saw the continued construction of foundations upon which all subsequent medical experimentation has been built.
  • Lady Mary Montagu promoted smallpox vaccination; its proponents experimented on prisoners to study its efficacy, and James Jurin, the secretary of the Royal Society, developed mathematical proof of this in the face of ecclesiastical opposition.4 Many of the modern concepts of therapeutic trials were described although not widely accepted. Empirical observation through experimentation was starting to be recognised as the tool that allowed ascertainment of fact and truth. An account of Dr Bianchini’s experiments on “Le Medicin Electrique”, reported to the Royal Society explains that “The experiments were made by Dr Bianchini assisted by several curious and learned men … who not being able to separate what was true … determined to be guided by their own experiments and it was by this most troublesome though of all the others the most sure way, that they have learned to reject a great number of what have been published as facts.”5
  • Similarly, Henry Baker’s report to the Royal Society, describing Abbe Nollet’s experiments, outlined the need for comparative studies and that “treatment should not be condemned without a fair trial”6 and a Belgian doctor, Professor Lambergen, describing the use of deadly nightshade for the treatment of breast cancer wrote “Administration of this plant certainly merits the attention of the medical profession; and surely one may add entitles the medicine to future trials … nevertheless the most efficacious medicines are such if its efficacy by repeated trials be approved.”7 In the mid 18th century James Lind conducted the first controlled trial to establish a cure for scurvy and his Treatise on the Scurvy contains what could be seen in modern terminology as the first “review of the current literature” prior to a clinical trial.8
  • Her motives for writing Frankenstein are more difficult to define. In her introduction to the 1831 edition she writes that she wanted her work to … speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror—one to make the reader dread to look round. If I did not accomplish these things, my ghost story would be unworthy of its name … (p 7, p 8)
  • The 1818 preface, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, indicates a deeper purpose. He wrote that the story recommends itself as it “…affords a point of view on the imagination for the delineating of human passions more comprehensive and commanding than any which the ordinary relations of existing events can yield…” (p 11) and that “…I am by no means indifferent to the manner in which ... moral tendencies (that) exist in the sentiments of characters shall affect the reader…”(p 12).
Jason Finley

Diigo in Education - 108 views

Marie, my primary use and focus with Diigo is the social networking aspect that you mentioned. There is definitely truth to the statement that "Chance favors the connected mind." I've created a g...


Kelly Boushell

Thanksgiving Interactive: You are the Historian | Plymoth Plantation - 85 views

    "What really happened at the First Thanksgiving? Become a history detective and find out! In this fun, award-winning activity, kids take on the role of "history detectives" to investigate what really happened at the famous 1621 celebration. (Hint: It was a lot more than just a feast!) Along the way, they'll read a letter written by an eyewitness to the event, learn about Wampanoag traditions of giving thanks, and visit Pilgrim Mary Allerton's home. As a final activity, kids can design and print their own Thanksgiving exhibit panel."

Rethinking the Way College Students Are Taught - 52 views

  • But here's the irony. "Mary is more likely to convince John than professor Mazur in front of the class," Mazur says. "She's only recently learned it and still has some feeling for the conceptual difficulties that she has whereas professor Mazur learned [the idea] such a long time ago that he can no longer understand why somebody has difficulty grasping it." That's the irony of becoming an expert in your field, Mazur says. "It becomes not easier to teach, it becomes harder to teach because you're unaware of the conceptual difficulties of a beginning learner."
  • To make sure his students are prepared, Mazur has set up a web-based monitoring system where everyone has to submit answers to questions about the reading prior to coming to class. The last question asks students to tell Mazur what confused them. He uses their answers to prepare a set of multiple-choice questions he uses during class.
  • Mazur begins class by giving a brief explanation of a concept he wants students to understand. Then he asks one of the multiple-choice questions. Students get a minute to think about the question on their own and then answer it using a mobile device that sends their answers to Mazur's laptop. Next, he asks the students to turn to the person sitting next to them and talk about the question. The class typically erupts in a cacophony of voices, as it did that first time he told students to talk to each other because he couldn't figure out what else to do. Once the students have discussed the question for a few minutes, Mazur instructs them to answer the question again.
  • ...7 more annotations...
    • anonymous
      Why do we continue to do things the same way we always have and expect different results from what we have always gotten?
    • anonymous
      How true this statement is!  If students want to learn, they are going to learn in spite of who the teacher is or what the teacher does - no teacher is really needed!
  • So Mazur gave what he thought was a thorough and thoughtful explanation of the concept. He went slowly, putting all kinds of helpful diagrams up on the board. "I thought I'd nailed it," he says. "I thought it was the best explanation one could possibly give of this question." Mazur triumphantly turned around. "Any questions?" he asked. The students just stared at him. "Nobody raised their hand and said, well but what if this and what if that, simply because they were so confused they couldn't," he says. "I didn't know what to do. But I knew one thing. I knew that 50 percent of the students had given the right answer."
    • anonymous
      How many times have we done this when we are providing direct instructions to students and then felt frustration when we assess what they know?  ARGH!
    • anonymous
      Watch this video!
    • anonymous
      The same probably goes for info that is simply read and not annotated or discussed.  It is probably also true for info gained from a video or movie...
    • anonymous
      This would be an effective use of Socrative or WallWisher!

EDUCHAOS: Go Conative - where there's will, you're away! - 38 views

    In this 6th article in the EDUCHAOS series Marie Jasinski explores the conative domain  - having the will, striving, intentionality and determination to achieve a goal.  Through an innovator's soliloquy, discover why "going conative" is a critical ingredient in the successful diffusion of innovative practice.
Jon Tanner

tech showcase - msu maet portfolio: mary anna thornton - 64 views

    This is an excellent example of a web portfolio showing the professional learning, growth, and accomplishments of a practicing educator. The emphasis is on technology, but it's important to note that the educator is not a technologist by nature. The longitudinal nature of the portfolio, showing past accomplishments in the context of her regular work, demonstrate the growth of the educator in both her coursework and regular job.
Matt Renwick

Ann Marie's Marie Journey: Truths From the Alabama Teacher of the Year: Truth #1- The Common Core is Not a Person - 17 views

  • So instead of bashing the CCSS/ACCRS, and fighting about standards that are “failing your child”, I encourage everyone to put his/her energy into supporting our state’s efforts to hire and retain the best and brightest professionals.
tom campbell

The Tell-All Generation Learns When Not To, at Least Online - - 55 views

  • They are more diligent than older adults, however, in trying to protect themselves. In a new study to be released this month, the Pew Internet Project has found that people in their 20s exert more control over their digital reputations than older adults, more vigorously deleting unwanted posts and limiting information about themselves. “Social networking requires vigilance, not only in what you post, but what your friends post about you,” said Mary Madden, a senior research specialist who oversaw the study by Pew, which examines online behavior. “Now you are responsible for everything.”
Seth Mitchell

The Flipped Classroom: Pro and Con | Edutopia - 103 views

    • Seth Mitchell
      Important point.
    • Ben Rimes
      This is more than just an important point, it's the essential point that needs to be driven home to new Flipped Class learners.
  • the model is not about the videos, but about the learning.
  • Good instruction, especially for math concepts, requires that ideas be presented in a number of ways
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  • Our students just don't have the access required for the model to really work.
    • Seth Mitchell
      Equity is an important point, but flipped classrooms that don't give students the opportunity to access content during the day are just packaging old pedagogy in a dollar-store costume.
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