J. Michael Shaughnessy, president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, argues that the latest PISA test "underscores the need for integrating reasoning and sense making in our teaching of Mathematics." Randi Weingarten, head of the American Federation of Teachers, claims that the same results "tell us … that if you don't make Math investments in teachers, respect them, or involve them in decision-making, as the top-performing countries do, students pay a price."