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(PDF) A Systematic Review of Treatments for Music Performance Anxiety - 2 views

  • Four other studies (three of which are dissertations) assessed behavioral treatments forMPA on music students. Grishman (1989) and Mansberger (1988) used standard musclerelaxation techniques, Wardle (1969) compared insight/relaxation and systematic desensi-tisation techniques, and Deen (1999) used awareness and breathing techniques
  • A systematic review of all available treatment studies for music performance anxiety was undertaken.
  • reported that 24% of musicians frequently suffered stage fright, defined in this study as themost severe form of MPA, 13% experienced acute anxiety and 17% experienceddepression.
  • ...24 more annotations...
  • 59% of musicians in symphony orchestras reported performance anxiety severe enough toimpair their professional and/or personal functioning.
  • A recent study indicated that MPA is not limited to orchestralmusicians, showing that opera chorus artists are also prone to high levels of performanceanxiety
  • However, since not allperformers suffer the same degree of MPA, or indeed report the same levels of occupationalstress, individual differences in a range of psychological characteristics are likely to accountfor variations in the degree to which musicians experience symptoms
  • A large number of treatment modalities (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, pharmacological andcomplementary) has been developed for music performance anxiety (MPA)
  • However, areview of this literature indicates that the field is still in its infancy with respect to theconceptual and theoretical formulations of the nature of MPA and its empiricalinvestigation.
  • Anxiety may be triggered by conscious,rational concerns or by cues that trigger, unconsciously, earlier anxiety producingexperiences or somatic sensations.
  • These findings suggest that multi-modal interventions are needed toaddress the multiple difficulties experienced by test anxious individuals.
  • with some focusing on behavioral change, some on cognitivechange, others on reduction of physiological symptoms through the use of pharmacotherapy,and some on idiosyncratic formulations
  • For drug studies, the keywords were beta-blocker [Beta blockers block the effect ofadrenaline (the hormone norepinephrine) on the body’s beta receptors. This slows downthe nerve impulses that travel through the heart. As a result, the resting heart rate is lower,the heart does not have to work as hard and requires less blood and oxygen
  • Brodsky (1996) and Nube´(1991) were most useful.
  • The interventionsassessed included systematic desensitization, progressive muscle relaxation, awareness andbreathing and behavioural rehearsal
  • In summary, behavioral treatments do appear to be at least minimally effective in thetreatment of MPA, although the heterogeneity of the treatment approaches employedmakes it difficult to isolate consistent evidence for the superiority of any one type ofbehavioral intervention
  • Two studies (see Tables II and IV) assessed the therapeutic effect of cognitive techniquesalone on MPA.
  • A dissertation by Patston (1996) reported a comparison of cognitive (e.g.positive self-talk, etc.) and physiological strategies in the treatment of MPA. No significantimprovements on vocal and visual manifestations of performance anxiety were found foreither treatment or control groups. However, the sample consisted of only 17 operastudents who were not specifically selected on the basis of their MPA severity, and theintervention was conducted by the author, a singer and teacher, who had no training inpsychology.
  • Three studies (see Table III) assessed the therapeutic effect of cognitive-behavioralstrategies on MPA. Harris (1987), Roland (1993), and Kendrick et al. (1982) all reportedthat standard CBT techniques were effective in the treatment of MPA in studentsspecifically selected for study because of the severity of their MPA.
  • Harris (1987) and Roland(1993) reported that CBT led to reductions in state anxiety as measured by the STAI,although Kendrick et al. (1982) failed to find a significant difference between treatment andcontrol groups on this measure.
  • The evidence for improvements in MPA following CBT is quite consistent, althoughfurther studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this evidence.
  • Beta-blockers have become increasingly popular among performers in recent years. Forexample, Lockwood (1989), in a survey of 2,122 orchestral musicians, found that 27% usedpropranolol to manage their anxiety prior to a performance; 19% of this group used thedrug on a daily basis.
  • Nube´ (1991) identified nine studies examining the effects of various beta-blockers(Atenolol, Metopolol, Nadolol, Oxprenolol, Propranolol, Pindolol) on MPA.
  • The findings regarding the effects of beta blockers on otheroutcome measures were less conclusive.
  • A rigorous definition of MPA is needed to advance treatment. However, defining MPA as asocial anxiety (social phobia) using criteria set out in DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) as theinclusion criteria may be too restrictive, particularly if the musician presenting for treatmentexperiences MPA as a focal anxiety (ie does not meet other criteria for social anxiety).
  • Few ofthe intervention studies reviewed acknowledged that performers need a certain amount ofarousal or anxiety to maximise their performance.
  • None of the studies could be pooled in a meta-analysis primarily because too fewprovided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes, use of diverse subject groups andtreatments, duration and intensity of treatment, and use of disparate outcome measures
  • In conclusion, the literature on treatment approaches for MPA is fragmented, incon-sistent, and methodologically weak. These limitations make it difficult to reach any firmconclusions about the effectiveness of the various treatment approaches reviewed. Forsignificant progress to be made, future research will require a clear definition of MPA,consistency and strength in methodology, and the development of robust and appropriateoutcome measures.
Chema Falcó

Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation | TED Talk - 12 views

    la motivación extrínseca suele entorpecer la realización de tareas que requieren creatividad Motiv intrínseca: Autonomía, Perfeccionamiento (maestría), Propósito
Michele Rosen

TED-Ed and Periodic Videos - 52 views

    "A lesson about every single element on the periodic table" - video lessons on all the elements in the Periodic Table "
Martin Burrett

Video: Because of you, This is Me, by @jazampawfarr - 34 views

    "Jaz Ampaw-Farr shares her amazing, inspirational story from the TEDxNorwich stage of her journey through education, both as a pupil and as an educator and how hero teachers saved her life."
Jeff Andersen

How great leaders inspire action | Simon Sinek - YouTube - 30 views

    Uploaded on May 4, 2010 Simon Sinek presents a simple but powerful model for how leaders inspire action, starting with a golden circle and the question "Why?" His examples include Apple, Martin Luther King, and the Wright brothers -- and as a counterpoint Tivo, which (until a recent court victory that tripled its stock price) appeared to be struggling.
Siri Anderson

Artificial intelligence | Playlist | - 13 views

    I used to promote teaching K-8 computational thinking and coding because of the social justice issues around access to the language of power, economic opportunities, and a belief that learning CT enhances overall academic competencies for those likely to be challenged to succeed in schools.. Now I'm an advocate for a different set of reasons that seem more preeminent. We need everyone to learn computational thinking because ethics and protecting the right to spirituality/secular humanist values seem to be what computers won't be able to do better than humans. Therefore we better have humans who are ethically grounded, informed by the humanities, and competent to understand the implications of the computer software we create. This is a great watch list or podcast list to spur considerations of this urgent matter of the unregulated world of AI.
Randy Yerrick

Jonathan Drori: What we think we know | TED Talk | - 37 views

    Starting with four basic questions (that you may be surprised to find you can't answer), Jonathan Drori looks at the gaps in our knowledge - and specifically, what we don't about science that we might think we do.
Randy Yerrick

Diana Laufenberg: How to learn? From mistakes | TED Talk | - 35 views

    iana Laufenberg shares three surprising things she has learned about teaching - including a key insight about learning from mistakes
Randy Yerrick

Conrad Wolfram: Teaching kids real math with computers | TED Talk | - 23 views

    From rockets to stock markets, many of humanity's most thrilling creations are powered by math. So why do kids lose interest in it? Conrad Wolfram says the part of math we teach - calculation by hand - isn't just tedious, it's mostly irrelevant to real mathematics and the real world. He presents his radical idea: teaching kids math through computer programming.
Randy Yerrick

Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution! | TED Talk | - 22 views

    In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning - creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish.
Randy Yerrick

Wendy Hawkins: Let them be scientists - 20 views

    The key to inspiring children to pursue science can be found in the curious and inquisitive spirit we all tap into as we first discover the world. Wendy Hawkins demonstrates why we need to inject a more experimental approach into our science curriculum to ensure that we stay connected to the scientist in all of us.
Randy Yerrick

Tyler DeWitt: Hey science teachers -- make it fun | Talk Video | - 18 views

    He delivers a rousing call for science teachers to ditch the jargon and extreme precision, and instead make science sing through stories and demonstrations.
Randy Yerrick

Ken Robinson: 10 talks on education | Playlist | - 27 views

    Onstage at TED2013, Sugata Mitra makes his bold TED Prize wish: Help me design the School in the Cloud, a learning lab in India, where children can explore and learn from each other - using resources and mentoring from the cloud
Randy Yerrick

Sal Khan: Let's use video to reinvent education | TED Talk | - 16 views

    Salman Khan talks about how and why he created the remarkable Khan Academy, a carefully structured series of educational videos offering complete curricula in math and, now, other subjects. He shows the power of interactive exercises, and calls for teachers to consider flipping the traditional classroom script - give students video lectures to watch at home, and do "homework" in the classroom with the teacher available to help.
Randy Yerrick

Sal Khan: Let's teach for mastery -- not test scores | TED Talk | - 12 views

    Sal Khan shares his plan to turn struggling students into scholars by helping them master concepts at their own pace.
Randy Yerrick

Nadia Lopez: Why open a school? To close a prison | TED Talk | - 4 views

    In this short, energizing talk, the founding principal of Mott Hall Bridges Academy (and a star of Humans of New York) shares how she helps her scholars envision a brighter future for themselves and their families.
Randy Yerrick

Michael Bodekaer: This virtual lab will revolutionize science class | TED Talk | - 22 views

    Virtual reality is no longer part of some distant future, and it's not just for gaming and entertainment anymore. Michael Bodekaer wants to use it to make quality education more accessible. In this refreshing talk, he demos an idea that could revolutionize the way we teach science in schools.
Alfredo Zavaleta

How Teens Do Research in the Digital World | Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project - 105 views

  • Overview Three-quarters of AP and NWP teachers say that the internet  and digital search tools have had a “mostly positive” impact on their students’ research habits, but 87% say these technologies are creating an “easily distracted generation with short attention spans” and 64% say today’s digital technologies “do more to distract students than to help them academically.”
  • Overall, the vast majority of these teachers say a top priority in today’s classrooms should be teaching students how to “judge the quality of online information.”
  • The internet and digital technologies are significantly impacting how students conduct research: 77% of these teachers say the overall impact is “mostly positive,” but they sound many cautionary notes
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  • Teachers and students alike report that for today’s students, “research” means “Googling.”  As a result, some teachers report that for their students “doing research” has shifted from a relatively slow process of intellectual curiosity and discovery to a fast-paced, short-term exercise aimed at locating just enough information to complete an assignment.
    • Kelly Sereno
      Yikes - a disturbing survey response!
  •   Second and third on the list of frequently used sources are online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia, and social media sites such as YouTube. 
  •  94% of the teachers surveyed say their students are “very likely” to use Google or other online search engines in a typical research assignment, placing it well ahead of all other sources that we asked about
  • e databases such as EBSCO, JSTOR, or Grolier (17%) A research librarian at their school or public library (16%)
  • In response to this trend, many teachers say they shape research assignments to address what they feel can be their students’ overdependence on search engines and online encyclopedias.  Nine in ten (90%) direct their students to specific online resources they feel are most appropriate for a particular assignment, and 83% develop research questions or assignments that require students to use a wider variety of sources, both online and offline.
  • Teachers give students’ research skills modest ratings Despite viewing the overall impact of today’s digital environment on students’ research habits as “mostly positive,” teachers rate the actual research skills of their students as “good” or “fair” in most cases.  Very few teachers rate their students “excellent” on any of the research skills included in the survey.  This is notable, given that the majority of the sample teaches Advanced Placement courses to the most academically advanced students.
    • Kelly Sereno
      These research skills relate to the common core literacy standards, and many ratings of students' skills in these areas fell into fair or poor categories.
  • Overwhelming majorities of these teachers also agree with the assertions that “today’s digital technologies are creating an easily distracted generation with short attention spans” (87%) and “today’s students are too ‘plugged in’ and need more time away from their digital technologies” (86%).  Two-thirds (64%) agree with the notion that “today’s digital technologies do more to distract students than to help them academically.”
    • Alfredo Zavaleta
      Students need to show more patience, take longer to decide, ponder the options.
    • Alfredo Zavaleta
      Procrastination not necessarily bad- see TED on procrastination
Nigel Coutts

Making Compassion the Fifth C of Learning - The Learner's Way - 26 views

    The question of what learning matters most to our students is one that I return to regularly. A fascinating range of models are available each with similar elements but presented in a slightly different manner. Most could be summarised by the 'Four C's' model outlined in 'Most Likely to Succeed' by Tony Wagner and ted Dintersmith. Critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity are vital and each plays an important role in allowing us to manage the complexity of modern day life. Beyond being relevant to success in the classroom the Four C's are the foundations of life-long learning but I question if alone they are enough. I believe we must include a fifth; compassion.
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