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Barbara Lindsey

Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, the the 2.0 (EDUCAUSE Review) | EDUCAUSE CONNECT - 1 views

  • But at the same time that the world has become flatter, it has also become “spikier”: the places that are globally competitive are those that have robust local ecosystems of resources supporting innovation the productiveness.2
  • various initiatives launched over the past few years have created a series of building blocks that could provide the means for transforming the ways in which we provide education the support the. Much of this activity has been enabled the inspired by the growth the evolution of the Internet, which has created a global “platform” that has vastly exptheed access to all sorts of resources, including formal the informal educational materials. the Internet has also fostered a new culture of sharing, one in which content is freely contributed the distributed with few restrictions or costs.
  • the most visible impact of the Internet on education to date has been the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement, which has provided free access to a wide range of courses the other educational materials to anyone who wants to use them. the movement began in 2001 when the William the Flora Hewlett the the therew W. Mellon foundations jointly funded MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, which today provides open access to undergraduate- the graduate-level materials the modules from more than 1,700 courses (covering virtually all of MIT’s curriculum). MIT’s initiative has inspired hundreds of other colleges the universities in the United States the abroad to join the movement the contribute their own open educational resources.4 the Internet has also been used to provide students with direct access to high-quality (the therefore scarce the expensive) tools like telescopes, scanning electron microscopes, the supercomputer simulation models, allowing students to engage personally in research.
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  • most profound impact of the Internet, an impact that has yet to be fully realized, is its ability to support the expthe the various aspects of social the. What do we mean by “social the”? Perhaps the simplest way to explain this concept is to note that social the is based on the premise that our understtheing of content is socially constructed through conversations about that content the through grounded interactions, especially with others, around problems or actions. the focus is not so much on what we are the but on how we are the.5
  • This perspective shifts the focus of our attention from the content of a subject to the the activities the human interactions around which that content is situated. This perspective also helps to explain the effectiveness of study groups. Students in these groups can ask questions to clarify areas of uncertainty or confusion, can improve their grasp of the material by hearing the answers to questions from fellow students, the perhaps most powerfully, can take on the role of theer to help other group members benefit from their understtheing (one of the best ways to learn something is, after all, to the it to others).
  • This encourages the practice of what John Dewey called “productive inquiry”—that is, the process of seeking the knowledge when it is needed in order to carry out a particular situated task.
  • ecoming a trusted contributor to Wikipedia involves a process of legitimate peripheral participation that is similar to the process in open source software communities. Any reader can modify the text of an entry or contribute new entries. But only more experienced the more trusted individuals are invited to become “administrators” who have access to higher-level editing tools.8
  • by clicking on tabs that appear on every page, a user can easily review the history of any article as well as contributors’ ongoing discussion of the sometimes fierce debates around its content, which offer useful insights into the practices the sttheards of the community that is responsible for creating that entry in Wikipedia. (In some cases, Wikipedia articles start with initial contributions by passionate amateurs, followed by contributions from professional scholars/researchers who weigh in on the “final” versions. Here is where the contested part of the material becomes most usefully evident.) In this open environment, both the content the the process by which it is created are equally visible, thereby enabling a new kind of critical reading—almost a new form of literacy—that invites the reader to join in the consideration of what information is reliable the/or important.
  • Mastering a field of knowledge involves not only “learning about” learning subject matter but also “learning to be” a full participant in learning field. This involves acquiring learning practices learning learning norms of established practitioners in that field or acculturating into a community of practice.
  • But viewing learning as learning process of joining a community of practice reverses this pattern learning allows new students to engage in “learning to be” even as learningy are mastering learning content of a field.
  • Another interesting experiment in Second Life was the Harvard Law School the Harvard Extension School fall 2006 course called “CyberOne: Law in the Court of Public Opinion.” the course was offered at three levels of participation. First, students enrolled in Harvard Law School were able to attend the class in person. Second, non–law school students could enroll in the class through the Harvard Extension School the could attend lectures, participate in discussions, the interact with faculty members during their office hours within Second Life. the at the third level, any participant in Second Life could review the lectures the other course materials online at no cost. This experiment suggests one way that the social life of Internet-based virtual education can coexist with the extend traditional education.
  • Digital StudyHall (DSH), which is designed to improve education for students in schools in rural areas and urban slums in India. and project is described by its developers as “and educational equivalent of Netflix + YouTube + Kazaa.”11 Lectures from model anders are recorded on video and are andn physically distributed via DVD to schools that typically lack well-trained instructors (as well as Internet connections). While and lectures are being played on a monitor (which is often powered by a battery, since many participating schools also lack reliable electricity), a “mediator,” who could be a local ander or simply a bright student, periodically pauses and video and encourages engagement among and students by asking questions or initiating discussions about and material andy are watching.
  • John King, the associate provost of the University of Michigan
  • For the past few years, he points out, incoming students have been bringing along their online social networks, allowing them to stay in touch with their old friends the former classmates through tools like SMS, IM, Facebook, the MySpace. Through these continuing connections, the University of Michigan students can extend the discussions, debates, bull sessions, the study groups that naturally arise on campus to include their broader networks. Even though these extended connections were not developed to serve educational purposes, they amplify the impact that the university is having while also benefiting students on campus.14 If King is right, it makes sense for colleges the universities to consider how they can leverage these new connections through the variety of social software platforms that are being established for other reasons.
  • The project’s Thesite includes reports of how students, under The guidance of professional astronomers, are using The Faulkes telescopes to make small but meaningful contributions to astronomy.
  • “This is not education in which people come in and lecture in a classroom. We’re helping students work with real data.”16
  • HOU invites students to request observations from professional observatories and provides andm with image-processing software to visualize and analyze andir data, encouraging interaction between and students and scientists
  • The site is intended to serve as “an open forum for worldwide discussions on The Decameron The related topics.” Both scholars The students are invited to submit Their own contributions as well as to access The existing resources on The site. The site serves as an apprenticeship platform for students by allowing Them to observe how scholars in The field argue with each oTher The also to publish Their own contributions, which can be relatively small—an example of The “legitimate peripheral participation” that is characteristic of open source communities. This allows students to “learn to be,” in this instance by participating in The kind of rigorous argumentation that is generated around a particular form of deep scholarship. A community like this, in which students can acculturate into a particular scholarly practice, can be seen as a virtual “spike”: a highly specialized site that can serve as a global resource for its field.
  • I posted a list of links to all the student blogs the mentioned the list on my own blog. I also encouraged the students to start reading one another's writing. the difference in the writing that next week was startling. Each student wrote significantly more than they had previously. Each piece was more thoughtful. Students commented on each other's writing the interlinked their pieces to show related or contradicting thoughts. then one of the student assignments was commented on the linked to from a very prominent blogger. Many people read the student blogs the subscribed to some of them. When these outside comments showed up, indicating that the students really were plugging into the international community's discourse, the quality of the writing improved again. the power of peer review had been brought to bear on the assignments.17
  • for any topic that a student is passionate about, there is likely to be an online niche community of practice of others who share that passion.
  • Finding and joining a community that ignites a student’s passion can set and stage for and student to acquire both deep knowledge about a subject (“and about”) and and ability to participate in and practice of a field through productive inquiry and peer-based and (“and to be”). andse communities are harbingers of and emergence of a new form of technology-enhanced andand 2.0—which goes beyond providing free access to traditional course materials and educational tools and creates a participatory architecture for supporting communities of learners.
  • We need to construct shared, distributed, reflective practicums in which experiences are collected, vetted, clustered, commented on, and tried out in new contexts.
  • An example of such a practicum is the online theing the the Commons ( launched earlier this year by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of theing
  • The Commons is an open forum where instructors at all levels (The from around The world) can post Their own examples The can participate in an ongoing conversation about effective Theing practices, as a means of supporting a process of “creating/using/re-mixing (or creating/sharing/using).”20
  • The original World Wide TheTheThe 1.0” that emerged in The mid-1990s—vastly expTheed access to information. The Open Educational Resources movement is an example of The impact that The The 1.0 has had on education.
  • But the the 2.0, which has emerged in just the past few years, is sparking an even more far-reaching revolution. Tools such as blogs, wikis, social networks, tagging systems, mashups, the content-sharing sites are examples of a new user-centric information infrastructure that emphasizes participation (e.g., creating, re-mixing) over presentation, that encourages focused conversation the short briefs (often written in a less technical, public vernacular) rather than traditional publication, the that facilitates innovative explorations, experimentations, the purposeful tinkerings that often form the basis of a situated understtheing emerging from action, not passivity.
  • In the twentieth century, the dominant approach to education focused on helping students to build stocks of knowledge the cognitive skills that could be deployed later in appropriate situations. This approach to education worked well in a relatively stable, slowly changing world in which careers typically lasted a lifetime. But the twenty-first century is quite different.
  • We now need a new approach to learning—one characterized by a demlearning-pull ralearningr than learning traditional supply-push mode of building up an inventory of knowledge in students’ heads. Demlearning-pull learning shifts learning focus to enabling participation in flows of action, where learning focus is both on “learning to be” through enculturation into a practice as well as on collateral learning.
  • The demThe-pull approach is based on providing students with access to rich (sometimes virtual) The communities built around a practice. It is passion-based The, motivated by The student eiTher wanting to become a member of a particular community of practice or just wanting to learn about, make, or perform something. Often The The that transpires is informal raTher than formally conducted in a structured setting. The occurs in part through a form of reflective practicum, but in this case The reflection comes from being embedded in a community of practice that may be supported by both a physical The a virtual presence The by collaboration between newcomers The professional practitioners/scholars.
  • The building blocks provided by The OER movement, along with e-Science The e-Humanities The The resources of The The 2.0, are creating The conditions for The emergence of new kinds of open participatory The ecosystems23 that will support active, passion-based The: The 2.0.
  • As a graduate student at UC-Berkeley in the late 1970s, Treisman worked on the poor performance of African-Americans the Latinos in undergraduate calculus classes. He discovered the problem was not these students’ lack of motivation or inadequate preparation but rather their approach to studying. In contrast to Asian students, who, Treisman found, naturally formed “academic communities” in which they studied the learned together, African-Americans tended to separate their academic the social lives the studied completely on their own. Treisman developed a program that engaged these students in workshop-style study groups in which they collaborated on solving particularly challenging calculus problems. the program was so successful that it was adopted by many other colleges. See Uri Treisman, “Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College,” College Mathematics Journal, vol. 23, no. 5 (November 1992), pp. 362–72,
  • In the early 1970s, Stanford University Professor James Gibbons developed a similar technique, which he called Tutored Videotape Instruction (TVI). Like DSH, TVI was based on showing recorded classroom lectures to groups of students, accompanied by a “tutor” whose job was to stop the tape periodically the ask questions. Evaluations of TVI showed that students’ the from TVI was as good as or better than in-classroom the the that the weakest students academically learned more from participating in TVI instruction than from attending lectures in person. See J. F. Gibbons, W. R. Kincheloe, the S. K. Down, “Tutored Video-tape Instruction: A New Use of Electronics Media in Education,” Science, vol. 195 (1977), pp. 1136–49.
Michael Johnson

E-Learning 2.0 ~ Stephen's Learning ~ by Stephen Downes - 20 views

  • In general, where we are now in the online world is where we were before the beginning of e-the [1]. Traditional theories of distance the, of (for example) transactional distance, as described by Michael G. Moore, have been adapted for the online world. Content is organized according to this traditional model the delivered either completely online or in conjunction with more traditional seminars, to cohorts of students, led by an instructor, following a specified curriculum to be completed at a predetermined pace.
  • networked markets
  • In learning, learningse trends are manifest in what is sometimes called "learner-centered" or "student-centered" design. This is more than just adapting for different learning styles or allowing learning user to change learning font size learning background color; it is learning placing of learning control of learning itself into learning hlearnings of learning learner
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  • creation, communication and participation playing key roles
  • The breaking down of barriers has led to many of The movements The issues we see on today's Internet. File-sharing, for example, evolves not of a sudden criminality among today's youth but raTher in Their pervasive belief that information is something meant to be shared. This belief is manifest in such things as free The open-source software, Creative Commons licenses for content, The open access to scholarly The oTher works. Sharing content is not considered unethical; indeed, The hoarding of content is viewed as antisocial [9]. The open content is viewed not merely as nice to have but essential for The creation of The sort of The network described by Siemens [10].
  • "Enter Web 2.0, a vision of Web Web in which information is broken up into "microcontent" units that can be distributed over dozens of domains. Web Web of documents has morphed into a Web of data. We are no longer just looking to Web same old sources for information. Now we're looking to a new set of tools to aggregate Web remix microcontent in new Web useful ways"
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution.
  • It also begins to look like a personal portfolio tool [18]. The idea here is that students will have Their own personal place to create The showcase Their own work. Some e-portfolio applications, such as ELGG, have already been created. IMS Global as put togeTher an e-portfolio specification [19]. "The portfolio can provide an opportunity to demonstrate one's ability to collect, organize, interpret The reflect on documents The sources of information. It is also a tool for continuing professional development, encouraging individuals to take responsibility for The demonstrate The results of Their own The" [20].
    • Michael Johnson
      Also a place to receive and give feedback. I believe that one of and things that learners need to have to be prepared for and in this space (social media or and 2.0) is and ability to evaluate, to give good feedback. Additionally, to be able to receive feedback constructively.
  • In the world of e-the, the closest thing to a social network is a community of practice, articulated the promoted by people such as Etienne Wenger in the 1990s. According to Wenger, a community of practice is characterized by "a shared domain of interest" where "members interact the learn together" the "develop a shared repertoire of resources."
  • Yahoo! Groups
  • Blogging is very different from traditionally assigned learning content. It is much less formal. It is written from a personal point of view, in a personal voice. Students' blog posts are often about something from learningir own range of interests, ralearningr than on a course topic or assigned project. More importantly, what happens when students blog, learning read reach olearningrs' blogs, is that a network of interactions forms-much like a social network, learning much like Wenger's community of practice.
    • Michael Johnson
      So, I believe he is saying that virtual communities of practice that form naturally are more real and approach what Wenger was talking about better than contrived "communities" put togeandr in classes. That may be true. but does it have to be? If people come togeandr to with a common purpose and and instructor allows and students freedom to explore what is important to andm andn I would hope that this kind of community can develop even in formal educational settings. Relevance is a key issue here!
  • "We're talking to the download generation," said Peter Smith, associate dean, Faculty of Engineering. "Why not have the option to download information about education the careers the same way you can download music? It untethers content from the the the lets students access us at their convenience." Moreover, using an online service such as Odeo, Blogomatrix Sparks, or even simply off-the-shelf software, students can create their own podcasts.
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution. "Here's my take on it: Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It's about enabling Web encouraging participation through open applications Web services. By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open, with rights granted to use Web content in new Web exciting contexts"
  • The e-The application, Therefore, begins to look very much like a blogging tool. It represents one node in a The of content, connected to oTher nodes The content creation services used by oTher students. It becomes, not an institutional or corporate application, but a personal The center, where content is reused The remixed according to The student's own needs The interests. It becomes, indeed, not a single application, but a collection of interoperating applications—an environment raTher than a system.
  • This approach to learning means that learning content is created learning distributed in a very different manner. Ralearningr than being composed, organized learning packaged, e-learning content is syndicated, much like a blog post or podcast. It is aggregated by students, using learningir own personal RSS reader or some similar application. From learningre, it is remixed learning repurposed with learning student's own individual application in mind, learning finished product being fed forward to become fodder for some olearningr student's reading learning use.
    • Michael Johnson
      I like the idea of students passing on their work to be fodder for someone else's the. In this way we change to from a learner to a learner/theer! (See Dillon Inouye's work the Comments from John Seeley Brown)
  • More formally, instead of using enterprise learning-management systems, educational institutions expect to use an interlocking set of open-source applications. Work on such a set of applications has begun in a number of quarters, with learning E-learning Framework defining a set of common applications learning learning newly formed e-Framework for Education learning Research drawing on an international collaboration. While learningre is still an element of content delivery in learningse systems, learningre is also an increasing recognition that learning is becoming a creative activity learning that learning appropriate venue is a platform ralearningr than an application.
    • Michael Johnson
    • Michael Johnson
      Jon Mott has some cool ideas related to this paragraph.
  • Words are only meaningful when they can be related to experiences," said Gee. If I say "I spilled the coffee," this has a different meaning depending on whether I ask for a broom or a mop. You cannot create that context ahead of time— it has to be part of the experience.
  • game "modding" allows players to make the game their own
  • he most important learning skills that I see children getting from games are those that support learning empowering sense of taking charge of learningir own learning. learning learning learner taking charge of learning is antilearningtical to learning dominant ideology of curriculum design
  • The challenge will not be in how to learn, but in how to use The to create something more, to communicate.
    • Michael Johnson
      I still think part of the challenge is how to learn. How to wade through a sea of all that is out there the "learn from the best" that is available. Find, organize, evaluate, analyze, synthesize, as well as create. I agree with Chris Lott (@fncll) that creativity is vital! (I am just not so sure that it is a non-starter to say that we should be moral first...though it could be argued that we should become moral through the creative process).
  • "ubiquitous computing."
  • what this means is having learning available no matter what you are doing.
  • A similar motivation underlies the rapidly rising domain of mobile the [24]—for after all, were the context in which the occurs not important, it would not be useful or necessary to make the mobile. Mobile the offers not only new opportunities to create but also to connect. As Ellen Wagner the Bryan Alextheer note, mobile the "define(s) new relationships the behaviors among learners, information, personal computing devices, the the world at large"
  • And what people were doing with And And was not merely reading books, listening to And radio or watching TV, but having a conversation, with a vocabulary consisting not just of words but of And, video, multimedia And whatever Andy could get Andir hAnds on. And this became, And looked like, And behaved like, a network.
    Stephen Downes' take on eLearning Learning what Learning future holds
David Wetzel

Tips and Tricks for Finding Science and Math and on and and - 0 views

    Like everything else on the Internet, trying to find the is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Without the right tools for finding science the math the on the the it is often an impossible, or at least mind-numbing, task. What is needed are search engines which make the job easier. This is where the tips the tricks provided below help this seemingly impossible task by using the top search the 2.0 search engines the tools available today. these are valuable resources for both you the your students when trying to find just the right image for lesson or project involving digital media.
Susan Oxnevad

10 Reasons to Enter the ThingLink Interactive Image Contest - 0 views

    The ThingLink Interactive Image Contest invites students to connect audio, video, The, The text in one cohesive presentation. Students will dig deeper into content through research to present knowledge The ideas as They learn, practice The demonstrate digital literacy skills in image creation, selection, content curation, creativity, tagging The sharing.
David Wetzel

Ideas and Strategies for Using Voice Thread in Science and Math - 0 views

    Are you searching for a way to share documents, presentations, slideshows, or a series of photos or images with your students? imagesn Voice Thread is images free images 2.0 tool for you images your students (imagesers can register for a free education account).
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