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titechnologies

Reasons why React Native Is the Future of Hybrid App Development - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    As the world of mobile apps is expanding beyond comprehension, demand for better and faster apps shoot up. We need applications that perform easily, have a magnificent look, simple to create, and can be implemented rapidly. All these necessities are difficult to satisfy as high performance, related to native apps, set aside enough time for the advancement. Then again, faster deployment, related with cross-platform applications, trade-off, no less than a bit, on performance. Therefore, aching for better languages, tools that help top-notch hybrid apps development, and frameworks keep developers on their toes. One such resolution, which quickly changing the universe of versatile applications is Facebook's React Native. It is a JavaScript library to assemble a UI that enables you to make versatile mobile applications and work easily as native apps. It even gives you a chance to reuse the code over the web and mobile platforms. You don't have to develop for Android and iOS, independently, as one code is sufficient for both the platforms, saving money and time. Let's look at some reasons that point towards React Native taking the center stage in the future. Supports Both iOS & Android - 'Supportive' Because of the two different operating systems which are majorly being used by the customers across the world, the primary challenge for the mobile app development companies is to choose one ahead of the other. But Facebook made it easy by introducing React Native. It supports both iOS and Android making it convenient for the app developers to use the same code for both the platforms without writing it from the scratch. Reusability for better development What makes us to state that REACTS is the eventual fate of application development? It is the reusability of the components. You don't have the Web view components anymore for hybrid apps with React native. The essential code for this framework will easily be reused within the native apps, and you'll easily compile it
titechnologies

Choosing the right Engagement Model for Business Software Development - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    Software Development has formed the economic and social face of the planet within the most recent 3 decades. What was once thought of gibber and kept to the elite minds that place humans on the Moon and cracked the German Enigma is currently a well-liked profession that has created landmarks just like the Silicon Valley and icons like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. With the spurt in revolutionary product ideas within the late 90s, the need to place those 'thoughts' into execution demanded the best development-skills, and this 'request' has been solely developing with time. This conveys us to an aspect of software development that has perpetually been a significant business call for companies - the foremost cost-effective engagement model. Here is what we think regarding selecting the right engagement model: Fixed Price Model Fixing the price is about fixing the project requirements, scope, as well as deadlines. This model can never work while not thorough initial planning, analysis, and estimation sessions. The more planning you do, the better the result. Why is the planning stage so important? The success of the fixed price project is directly proportional to the success of this primary phase. To have a superior control over a greater project, the engagement model may be somewhat changed with deliverables & milestones approach. A customer is charged because the in agreement milestones have come and deliverables are in situ. From that point forward, another stage with its own particular milestones and deliverables can start. for the majority of effectively fixed price projects, discovery phase fills in as the beginning point. Choose Fixed Price Engagement Model when: Requirements are clear, very much characterized and improbable to change You deal with a small or medium project which won't last for more than few months The Pros: It's well-defined and well-negotiated. There's no room for lapses. There is a push to get the total picture of the software even befo
titechnologies

THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING REACT NATIVE AS CROSS-PLATFORM APP DEVELOPMENT - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    The cross-platform app development is seemingly becoming popular as the stratum of competition is surpassing higher up the order. What's more, without any doubt, React Native has been distinguished as the most preferred cross-platform solution for the creation of both iOS and Android apps respectively. With React Native, you can work on two distinctive Operating Systems utilizing a single platform. React Native likewise demonstrates supportive in building attractive User Interfaces, which can't be recognized from a native app. The React Native might be a popular choice, however, it isn't the best decision as it has a few disadvantages also. Therefore, we would be highlighting the major advantages and disadvantages of the React Native, with the goal that you can a thought when to utilize the platform and when to maintain a strategic distance from it. Advantages of React Native Known for Optimal Performance Obviously, React Native is a genuine resource when it comes to enhancing the performances through native control and modules. The React Native gets associated with the native components for both the Operating Systems and generates a code to the native APIs upfront and freely. Presently the performance enhances because of the way that it makes utilization of a different thread from the native APIs and UI. Large Community of Developers The Fact that React Native is an open-source JavaScript platform where every developer is allowed to contribute to the framework and it's effectively accessible to all. In this way, you can take full advantage of the community-driven technology. The support of a large community is likewise valuable as it enables you to share your portfolios and experiences so that you can go for better coding. There is one platform GitHub React Native Community, which urges the developers to share their experiences at whenever point they learning something new about the React Native. They likewise get the feedback and reviews on the same establishi
Christopher Pappas

Free Webinar Camtasia Studio 8 for e-Learning Case Studies - 0 views

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    FREE Webinar "Camtasia Studio 8 for e-Learning Case Studies" Exclusive Offer for http://elearningindustry.com Members Tuesday, September 25th - 4 PM Eastern Forever it seems that Articulate and Captivate have been known as the first choice tools for E-learning. When Instructional Designers thought of Camtasia Studio they would most likely thing of linear software demos but not any more. With the arrival of Camtasia Studio 8 the is now a third option that is not only much less expensive than the competitors but also allow for a rich media experience along with a crystal clear screen capture engine and a vast array of outputs. This is content you don't want to miss! "Camtasia Studio for E-Learning- 4 Case Studies" Next Tuesday, Sept. 25th--> 4:00 p.m EST/1:00 p.m PST REGISTER FOR THE LIVE WEBINAR: http://learncamtasia.com/eLearningIndustry
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    FREE Webinar "Camtasia Studio 8 for e-Learning Case Studies" Exclusive Offer for http://elearningindustry.com Members Tuesday, September 25th - 4 PM Eastern Forever it seems that Articulate and Captivate have been known as the first choice tools for E-learning. When Instructional Designers thought of Camtasia Studio they would most likely thing of linear software demos but not any more. With the arrival of Camtasia Studio 8 the is now a third option that is not only much less expensive than the competitors but also allow for a rich media experience along with a crystal clear screen capture engine and a vast array of outputs. This is content you don't want to miss! "Camtasia Studio for E-Learning- 4 Case Studies" Next Tuesday, Sept. 25th--> 4:00 p.m EST/1:00 p.m PST REGISTER FOR THE LIVE WEBINAR: http://learncamtasia.com/eLearningIndustry
ugopros

5 Best Roofing Service Tips That Will Save You Money - Best Roofing Services in USA - 0 views

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    Home ownership can be very rewarding! Though there are many reasons to own your own home rather than rent, one of the biggest turn offs for owning a home is the repairs. Owning a home you have a few high priced items that must be maintained in order to keep your costs down. These include, Heater, Air conditioning, Plumbing, windows, and one of the most important item that gets overlooked until it's too late is the ROOF!and Best Roofing Services in USA Usually when a leak has sprung in the roof more times than not the homeowner is not ready financially to purchase a new roof. A new roof can cost anywhere between 5-10K dollars depending on the size and type of roof you have. That is without a doubt a major expense especially when it isn't budgeted. Usually a roof should last over 20yrs, and sometimes even longer that once again depending on the type and style. To have your roof survive it's full life span it needs consistent inspections, cleaning, and maintenance. This will keep the problems at a minimum and your roof protecting your home for many years to come. This article is just a few steps you can take as a DIY to protect your roof. Look At Your Roof: Usually the roof is the last part of the house you pay detail to when you pull into your driveway or while you out in your yard. So make a point to look up every once in a while. Check out your roof. Seasons change and so does the weather. Weather can do some damage to your roof. Snow, hail, wind are all things that your roof protects your family form. But it also things that can damage your roof. So look for that damage when the seasons change or after those major storms. Watch out for animal activity or the signs of insects, especially if you have trees or other vegetation around. Look for fungus or algae growth and even rust. The change of appearance can show that something is causing your roof to deteriorate prematurely. Also Look for shingle displacements, or pieces on the ground. Don't hesitate to g
titechnologies

How Artificial Intelligence (AI) Will Change Magento eCommerce stores - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    As digital transactions become the definitive method of purchasing goods and services, leading eCommerce firms are exploring how AI can enhance brand competitiveness and customer loyalty. Artificial Intelligence is set to be a game-changer to shape the next stage of the e-commerce evolution. Artificial intelligence provides passel of opportunities to the e-commerce industry where retailers compete to provide the maximum customer convenience, by providing the ultimate shopping experience. With continuous advances in digital voice technology, AI tools such as Alexa, Cortana, and Watson, are gracing headlines almost daily, hinting at the wide scope of opportunities it has to revolutionize eCommerce stores. Here we show 6 amazing applications to use Artificial Intelligence in eCommerce. * Create customer-centric search- By implementing Artificial intelligence in Magento creates purchase assistants that target the right users, with the right messages at the right time.AI programs can rely on self-learning algorithms to deconstruct Bigdata of thousands of customers and create targeted user experiences, hence ruling out any human-bias or error. * Context-based search- Product Search functionality is an integral part of a Magento store as the shopping process begins with the search for relevant products. If Magento individualizes some impressive extensions, they might be nothing as compared to the effectiveness of AI-powered searches. Here usual searches rely on the Keywords entered by the user and only when there is a correct match, your searches will dish out the right search results. But AI-powered product searches will look for the context of the search, utilize the capability of Natural Language Process to generate context-based search terms rather than typical keywords. * Facilitate Purchase Decisions- Purchase Assistants are something that is still not fully released. Using the concept of virtual Purchase assistant we can cut down the time spent by shoppers
titechnologies

Top 11 Tips to Improve AngularJS Performance - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    AngularJS is made to rearrange the complex process of building and overseeing JavaScript applications. In view of the Model-View-Controller, or MVC, programming structure, AngularJS is particularly valuable for making single page web apps. Today, online businesses are enormously affected by the performance of web technologies that they use for their respective tasks. Henceforth, it winds up the importance to dive into the majority of the elements that are harming their business growth. AngularJS can rapidly be added to any HTML page with a straightforward tag. In case you're asking why you have a couple of slow pages, here are a few hints to accelerate your code. AngularJS Optimization Tips Batarang Tool to Benchmark Watchers Batarang is an awesome dev tool from the AngularJS developer that brings down your debugging efforts. In spite of the fact that it has numerous new features, some of them enable you to profile and track the execution of your AngularJS performance. In addition, the watch tree figures out which extensions are not destroyed as it is by all accounts if there is an increase in the memory. Chrome Dev Tool Profiler to Identify Performance Bottlenecks This one is a helpful device that gives you the alternative to choose which profile type you need to make. Take Heap Snapshot, Record Allocation Timeline, and Record Allocation Profile are utilized for memory profiling. After this performance improvement, your app will complete in under two seconds and clients can freely connect with it then. Limit your watchers Talking about which, whenever you introduce data-bindings, you make more $scopes and $$watchers, which drags out the digest cycle. Excessively numerous $$watchers can cause lag, so restrain their utilization as much as possible. Utilize scope.$evalAsync On the off chance that you endeavor to manually initiate the digest cycle while it's now running, you could get an error. To keep this from happening, utilize scope.$evalAsync rather than $appl
ugopros

You Look Under The Sink To Find A Leak With The Garbage Disposal Best Plumbing Services in USA - 0 views

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    When you look under your sink and see a leak one of the first things that is assumed is time to get new garbage disposal, but this isn't the case. For the most part, if you are leaking around your disposal it is because of a faulty plumbing pipe or poor installation. So check the plumbing and the mounting hardware mounting to the sink itself. If you notice you're still having the leaks it's the time to get in touch with your local plumbing services. Many homeowners have the luxury of having garbage disposal to help make cleaning dishes easier, along with keeping the pipes clear of large food particles. Some may have never thought about getting a garbage disposal until they bought their first house which just happened to have one. This was the case For myself (You can call Best Plumbing Services in USA). I happen to see random light switch by the sink (Being young at the time, not knowing) and turned it on. I then heard this loud growl yell at me from the sink. This was my first run with garbage disposal. Having a garbage disposal has been great but can put you in a panic if you start to have some issues. When problems arise you can start to notice strange smells coming from the sink. You can notice when you flip the power switch you don't hear the disposal running, or you notice that water is continuing to clog. What we have here is 5 simple solutions that you can try to help get your garbage disposal back in operation, beFore you decide to go out and purchase a new one or call on that Best Plumbing Services in USA AKA the professionals. Yes this is a quick DIY For you. There Is A Clogged Garbage Disposal One of the first misconception of a garbage disposal is that it has blades so it can eat through anything. Though yes there are extreme safety precautions (LIKE DON'T PUT YOUR HAND IT THERE WHILE RUNNING) I will share with you the not so obvious things that you should avoid putting in disposal. The list here; oil, grease, or any nonfood item. Though
ugopros

5 Ways to Know You Need A Plumber | U'GoPros Inc - 0 views

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    Plumbing Repair Are you looking for a qualified, professional plumbing service provider or emergency plumber near me that knows the latest technological processes for fixing leaks, repairing and replacing plumbing pipes and ensuring your plumbing system is clean and operating normally? If you are, we can help you find the right plumber for your needs. Signs You Need a Plumbing Repair Contractor in Space Coast Florida Plumbing systems in the homes and businesses of Brevard County are often overlooked until they fail and result in the need to shut off your home or business' water until a qualified plumbing contractor can be contacted to locate and repair the problem. Thankfully, there are some signs you can look for to determine if your plumbing system needs a plumber repair or service leak repair before it completely fails, potentially resulting in floods and backed up sewer lines. 1. You Have Limited or No Hot Water Hot water is essential for washing laundry, taking a shower and general cleaning around your home or business. When you don't have hot water or you have very limited hot water, it could mean that you have a problem with the gas or electrical connections to your hot water heater, the hot water heating elements have failed or the inside is filled with debris and corrosion. The good news is that one of our water heater plumbing professionals can diagnose the problem with your water heater and repair it or replace your water heater. 2. More than One Drain is Slow If just one drain is slow, it most likely means there is a clog in that drain that needs to be removed. Drains that commonly clog include sinks, showers and bathtubs, and typically, all it takes is cleaning the clogged drain out with a plumbing snake or auger. However, if you have multiple slow drains or your toilet is backing up into your bathtub, there's a good chance you have a sewer line clog that needs immediate attention. Sewer lines can be safely cleaned out by an experienced plumb
ugopros

10 Electrical Safety Steps for Keeping you and your Family Safe - Professional Electrician Services in USA - 0 views

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    When it comes to keeping your family safe from harm, you want to do everything in your power. Dealing with electricity can be a dangerous thing if you don't do it correctly. Teaching your family how to properly approach electrical problems can make a world of difference in their safety. Here are our top 10 electrical safety tips to help keep your family safe from harm. 1.) Avoid Overloading An Electrical Outlet And Power Strips Being in the technology age, it can sometimes be difficult to charge all of our mobile items. From your phone to your iPod, to your computer, you need to have a clear outlet space to do so. Many think the best solution is to simply add more temporary outlets to their existing hardwired outlets. This can be done with power strips and multi-outlet plugins. While these may seem convenient at first, they actually can cause major electrical problems. Overloading outlets can cause burnt plugs, and in more severe cases, full-on house fires. You should avoid using multi-outlet plugins as much as possible to reduce your family's risk of danger. 2.) Don't Yank On Electrical Cords It may seem tempting from time to time to pull on a power cord to get it out of the wall. Just because it saves you that short trip back down the hallway to unplug the sweeper, it's actually costing you more in the long run because of the wear it takes. Realize that by yanking power cords, you can damage the cord, the plug, and the actual wall outlet. In the event that your wall outlet has become loose due to being yanked on, we suggest calling a qualified electrician to fix the issue. 3.) Avoid Keeping Power Cords Near Water If you've ever noticed that the outlets in your kitchen and bathroom are shaped differently than the rest, you've seen a GFCI outlet. These are specially made to help decrease the likelihood of electrical shock in the event that water seeps into the outlet. You can do yourself a favor and protect you and your family from electrical shock b
Michael Johnson

E-Learning 2.0 ~ Stephen's Web ~ by Stephen Downes - 20 views

  • In general, where we are now in the online world is where we were before the beginning of e-learning [1]. Traditional theories of distance learning, of (for example) transactional distance, as described by Michael G. Moore, have been adapted for the online world. Content is organized according to this traditional model and delivered either completely online or in conjunction with more traditional seminars, to cohorts of students, led by an instructor, following a specified curriculum to be completed at a predetermined pace.
  • networked markets
  • In learning, these trends are manifest in what is sometimes called "learner-centered" or "student-centered" design. This is more than just adapting for different learning styles or allowing the user to change the font size and background color; it is the placing of the control of learning itself into the hands of the learner
  • ...21 more annotations...
  • creation, communication and participation playing key roles
  • The breaking down of barriers has led to many of the movements and issues we see on today's Internet. File-sharing, for example, evolves not of a sudden criminality among today's youth but rather in their pervasive belief that information is something meant to be shared. This belief is manifest in such things as free and open-source software, Creative Commons licenses for content, and open access to scholarly and other works. Sharing content is not considered unethical; indeed, the hoarding of content is viewed as antisocial [9]. And open content is viewed not merely as nice to have but essential for the creation of the sort of learning network described by Siemens [10].
  • "Enter Web 2.0, a vision of the Web in which information is broken up into "microcontent" units that can be distributed over dozens of domains. The Web of documents has morphed into a Web of data. We are no longer just looking to the same old sources for information. Now we're looking to a new set of tools to aggregate and remix microcontent in new and useful ways"
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution.
  • It also begins to look like a personal portfolio tool [18]. The idea here is that students will have their own personal place to create and showcase their own work. Some e-portfolio applications, such as ELGG, have already been created. IMS Global as put together an e-portfolio specification [19]. "The portfolio can provide an opportunity to demonstrate one's ability to collect, organize, interpret and reflect on documents and sources of information. It is also a tool for continuing professional development, encouraging individuals to take responsibility for and demonstrate the results of their own learning" [20].
    • Michael Johnson
       
      Also a place to receive and give feedback. I believe that one of the things that learners need to have to be prepared for learning in this space (social media or web 2.0) is the ability to evaluate, to give good feedback. Additionally, to be able to receive feedback constructively.
  • In the world of e-learning, the closest thing to a social network is a community of practice, articulated and promoted by people such as Etienne Wenger in the 1990s. According to Wenger, a community of practice is characterized by "a shared domain of interest" where "members interact and learn together" and "develop a shared repertoire of resources."
  • Yahoo! Groups
  • Blogging is very different from traditionally assigned learning content. It is much less formal. It is written from a personal point of view, in a personal voice. Students' blog posts are often about something from their own range of interests, rather than on a course topic or assigned project. More importantly, what happens when students blog, and read reach others' blogs, is that a network of interactions forms-much like a social network, and much like Wenger's community of practice.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      So, I believe he is saying that virtual communities of practice that form naturally are more real and approach what Wenger was talking about better than contrived "communities" put together in classes. That may be true. but does it have to be? If people come together to with a common purpose and the instructor allows the students freedom to explore what is important to them then I would hope that this kind of community can develop even in formal educational settings. Relevance is a key issue here!
  • "We're talking to the download generation," said Peter Smith, associate dean, Faculty of Engineering. "Why not have the option to download information about education and careers the same way you can download music? It untethers content from the Web and lets students access us at their convenience." Moreover, using an online service such as Odeo, Blogomatrix Sparks, or even simply off-the-shelf software, students can create their own podcasts.
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution. "Here's my take on it: Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It's about enabling and encouraging participation through open applications and services. By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open, with rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts"
  • The e-learning application, therefore, begins to look very much like a blogging tool. It represents one node in a web of content, connected to other nodes and content creation services used by other students. It becomes, not an institutional or corporate application, but a personal learning center, where content is reused and remixed according to the student's own needs and interests. It becomes, indeed, not a single application, but a collection of interoperating applications—an environment rather than a system.
  • This approach to learning means that learning content is created and distributed in a very different manner. Rather than being composed, organized and packaged, e-learning content is syndicated, much like a blog post or podcast. It is aggregated by students, using their own personal RSS reader or some similar application. From there, it is remixed and repurposed with the student's own individual application in mind, the finished product being fed forward to become fodder for some other student's reading and use.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      I like the idea of students passing on their work to be fodder for someone else's learning. In this way we change to from a learner to a learner/teacher! (See Dillon Inouye's work and Comments from John Seeley Brown)
  • More formally, instead of using enterprise learning-management systems, educational institutions expect to use an interlocking set of open-source applications. Work on such a set of applications has begun in a number of quarters, with the E-Learning Framework defining a set of common applications and the newly formed e-Framework for Education and Research drawing on an international collaboration. While there is still an element of content delivery in these systems, there is also an increasing recognition that learning is becoming a creative activity and that the appropriate venue is a platform rather than an application.
    • Michael Johnson
    • Michael Johnson
       
      Jon Mott has some cool ideas related to this paragraph.
  • Words are only meaningful when they can be related to experiences," said Gee. If I say "I spilled the coffee," this has a different meaning depending on whether I ask for a broom or a mop. You cannot create that context ahead of time— it has to be part of the experience.
  • game "modding" allows players to make the game their own
  • he most important learning skills that I see children getting from games are those that support the empowering sense of taking charge of their own learning. And the learner taking charge of learning is antithetical to the dominant ideology of curriculum design
  • The challenge will not be in how to learn, but in how to use learning to create something more, to communicate.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      I still think part of the challenge is how to learn. How to wade through a sea of all that is out there and "learn from the best" that is available. Find, organize, evaluate, analyze, synthesize, as well as create. I agree with Chris Lott (@fncll) that creativity is vital! (I am just not so sure that it is a non-starter to say that we should be moral first...though it could be argued that we should become moral through the creative process).
  • "ubiquitous computing."
  • what this means is having learning available no matter what you are doing.
  • A similar motivation underlies the rapidly rising domain of mobile learning [24]—for after all, were the context in which learning occurs not important, it would not be useful or necessary to make learning mobile. Mobile learning offers not only new opportunities to create but also to connect. As Ellen Wagner and Bryan Alexander note, mobile learning "define(s) new relationships and behaviors among learners, information, personal computing devices, and the world at large"
  • And what people were doing with the Web was not merely reading books, listening to the radio or watching TV, but having a conversation, with a vocabulary consisting not just of words but of images, video, multimedia and whatever they could get their hands on. And this became, and looked like, and behaved like, a network.
  •  
    Stephen Downes' take on eLearning and what the future holds
ugopros

Tips on Hiring the Right Limo Service In USA - 0 views

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    A limo service should never be short of exhilarating. With the right guidance, you can choose the service that suits your interest. You can avoid lousy limo services that promise one thing and deliver the exact opposite. You can avoid the hassle by choosing the right service using the following criteria. 1. Decide the Type of Service You Want You can hire limo services for virtually any event or occasion. Most people use these services during their weddings, prom dates, airport transfers, anniversaries, birthdays, corporate events, normal corporate functions, official functions, private parties, dinner dates, and many other situations. Whatever the event, a limousine service will make it memorable and special. Once you have decided the event, confirm how many people will use the service. If you need more than two people, you may need a company that has big limousines. If everyone is traveling alone, you may need a service that has a large fleet so that no one arrives too early or too late. On your wedding day, you need a spectacular limo that will make a statement. Whatever the occasion, you need a company that can cater to those specific needs. Specify the number of people, the number of limos, the type of limousines, the color of the limo, the driver's dress code, and such details. 2. Verify Things can go wrong if you don't conduct your due diligence. These are the things to check before you hire the company. A. Vehicle Inspection The vehicles inspection report and FMCSA registration should be available for review. It should also be up to date. B. Driver License Your chauffeur will determine the kind of experience you can get. The driver's license should be current. Inquire about the level of training, experience, and ability to communicate. C. Company License Every company should have licenses to operate in individual states. Players in Brevard County and Space Coast need specific permits from the state of Florida to offer public transportation. D.
Barbara Lindsey

Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0 (EDUCAUSE Review) | EDUCAUSE CONNECT - 1 views

  • But at the same time that the world has become flatter, it has also become “spikier”: the places that are globally competitive are those that have robust local ecosystems of resources supporting innovation and productiveness.2
  • various initiatives launched over the past few years have created a series of building blocks that could provide the means for transforming the ways in which we provide education and support learning. Much of this activity has been enabled and inspired by the growth and evolution of the Internet, which has created a global “platform” that has vastly expanded access to all sorts of resources, including formal and informal educational materials. The Internet has also fostered a new culture of sharing, one in which content is freely contributed and distributed with few restrictions or costs.
  • the most visible impact of the Internet on education to date has been the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement, which has provided free access to a wide range of courses and other educational materials to anyone who wants to use them. The movement began in 2001 when the William and Flora Hewlett and the Andrew W. Mellon foundations jointly funded MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, which today provides open access to undergraduate- and graduate-level materials and modules from more than 1,700 courses (covering virtually all of MIT’s curriculum). MIT’s initiative has inspired hundreds of other colleges and universities in the United States and abroad to join the movement and contribute their own open educational resources.4 The Internet has also been used to provide students with direct access to high-quality (and therefore scarce and expensive) tools like telescopes, scanning electron microscopes, and supercomputer simulation models, allowing students to engage personally in research.
  • ...29 more annotations...
  • most profound impact of the Internet, an impact that has yet to be fully realized, is its ability to support and expand the various aspects of social learning. What do we mean by “social learning”? Perhaps the simplest way to explain this concept is to note that social learning is based on the premise that our understanding of content is socially constructed through conversations about that content and through grounded interactions, especially with others, around problems or actions. The focus is not so much on what we are learning but on how we are learning.5
  • This perspective shifts the focus of our attention from the content of a subject to the learning activities and human interactions around which that content is situated. This perspective also helps to explain the effectiveness of study groups. Students in these groups can ask questions to clarify areas of uncertainty or confusion, can improve their grasp of the material by hearing the answers to questions from fellow students, and perhaps most powerfully, can take on the role of teacher to help other group members benefit from their understanding (one of the best ways to learn something is, after all, to teach it to others).
  • This encourages the practice of what John Dewey called “productive inquiry”—that is, the process of seeking the knowledge when it is needed in order to carry out a particular situated task.
  • ecoming a trusted contributor to Wikipedia involves a process of legitimate peripheral participation that is similar to the process in open source software communities. Any reader can modify the text of an entry or contribute new entries. But only more experienced and more trusted individuals are invited to become “administrators” who have access to higher-level editing tools.8
  • by clicking on tabs that appear on every page, a user can easily review the history of any article as well as contributors’ ongoing discussion of and sometimes fierce debates around its content, which offer useful insights into the practices and standards of the community that is responsible for creating that entry in Wikipedia. (In some cases, Wikipedia articles start with initial contributions by passionate amateurs, followed by contributions from professional scholars/researchers who weigh in on the “final” versions. Here is where the contested part of the material becomes most usefully evident.) In this open environment, both the content and the process by which it is created are equally visible, thereby enabling a new kind of critical reading—almost a new form of literacy—that invites the reader to join in the consideration of what information is reliable and/or important.
  • Mastering a field of knowledge involves not only “learning about” the subject matter but also “learning to be” a full participant in the field. This involves acquiring the practices and the norms of established practitioners in that field or acculturating into a community of practice.
  • But viewing learning as the process of joining a community of practice reverses this pattern and allows new students to engage in “learning to be” even as they are mastering the content of a field.
  • Another interesting experiment in Second Life was the Harvard Law School and Harvard Extension School fall 2006 course called “CyberOne: Law in the Court of Public Opinion.” The course was offered at three levels of participation. First, students enrolled in Harvard Law School were able to attend the class in person. Second, non–law school students could enroll in the class through the Harvard Extension School and could attend lectures, participate in discussions, and interact with faculty members during their office hours within Second Life. And at the third level, any participant in Second Life could review the lectures and other course materials online at no cost. This experiment suggests one way that the social life of Internet-based virtual education can coexist with and extend traditional education.
  • Digital StudyHall (DSH), which is designed to improve education for students in schools in rural areas and urban slums in India. The project is described by its developers as “the educational equivalent of Netflix + YouTube + Kazaa.”11 Lectures from model teachers are recorded on video and are then physically distributed via DVD to schools that typically lack well-trained instructors (as well as Internet connections). While the lectures are being played on a monitor (which is often powered by a battery, since many participating schools also lack reliable electricity), a “mediator,” who could be a local teacher or simply a bright student, periodically pauses the video and encourages engagement among the students by asking questions or initiating discussions about the material they are watching.
  • John King, the associate provost of the University of Michigan
  • For the past few years, he points out, incoming students have been bringing along their online social networks, allowing them to stay in touch with their old friends and Former classmates through tools like SMS, IM, Facebook, and MySpace. Through these continuing connections, the University of Michigan students can extend the discussions, debates, bull sessions, and study groups that naturally arise on campus to include their broader networks. Even though these extended connections were not developed to serve educational purposes, they amplify the impact that the university is having while also benefiting students on campus.14 If King is right, it makes sense For colleges and universities to consider how they can leverage these new connections through the variety of social software platForms that are being established For other reasons.
  • The project’s website includes reports of how students, under the guidance of professional astronomers, are using the Faulkes telescopes to make small but meaningful contributions to astronomy.
  • “This is not education in which people come in and lecture in a classroom. We’re helping students work with real data.”16
  • HOU invites students to request observations from professional observatories and provides them with image-processing software to visualize and analyze their data, encouraging interaction between the students and scientists
  • The site is intended to serve as “an open forum for worldwide discussions on the Decameron and related topics.” Both scholars and students are invited to submit their own contributions as well as to access the existing resources on the site. The site serves as an apprenticeship platform for students by allowing them to observe how scholars in the field argue with each other and also to publish their own contributions, which can be relatively small—an example of the “legitimate peripheral participation” that is characteristic of open source communities. This allows students to “learn to be,” in this instance by participating in the kind of rigorous argumentation that is generated around a particular form of deep scholarship. A community like this, in which students can acculturate into a particular scholarly practice, can be seen as a virtual “spike”: a highly specialized site that can serve as a global resource for its field.
  • I posted a list of links to all the student blogs and mentioned the list on my own blog. I also encouraged the students to start reading one another's writing. The difference in the writing that next week was startling. Each student wrote significantly more than they had previously. Each piece was more thoughtful. Students commented on each other's writing and interlinked their pieces to show related or contradicting thoughts. Then one of the student assignments was commented on and linked to from a very prominent blogger. Many people read the student blogs and subscribed to some of them. When these outside comments showed up, indicating that the students really were plugging into the international community's discourse, the quality of the writing improved again. The power of peer review had been brought to bear on the assignments.17
  • for any topic that a student is passionate about, there is likely to be an online niche community of practice of others who share that passion.
  • Finding and joining a community that ignites a student’s passion can set the stage for the student to acquire both deep knowledge about a subject (“learning about”) and the ability to participate in the practice of a field through productive inquiry and peer-based learning (“learning to be”). These communities are harbingers of the emergence of a new form of technology-enhanced learning—Learning 2.0—which goes beyond providing free access to traditional course materials and educational tools and creates a participatory architecture for supporting communities of learners.
  • We need to construct shared, distributed, reflective practicums in which experiences are collected, vetted, clustered, commented on, and tried out in new contexts.
  • An example of such a practicum is the online Teaching and Learning Commons (http://commons.carnegiefoundation.org/) launched earlier this year by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
  • The Commons is an open forum where instructors at all levels (and from around the world) can post their own examples and can participate in an ongoing conversation about effective teaching practices, as a means of supporting a process of “creating/using/re-mixing (or creating/sharing/using).”20
  • The original World Wide Web—the “Web 1.0” that emerged in the mid-1990s—vastly expanded access to information. The Open Educational Resources movement is an example of the impact that the Web 1.0 has had on education.
  • But the Web 2.0, which has emerged in just the past few years, is sparking an even more far-reaching revolution. Tools such as blogs, wikis, social networks, tagging systems, mashups, and content-sharing sites are examples of a new user-centric information infrastructure that emphasizes participation (e.g., creating, re-mixing) over presentation, that encourages focused conversation and short briefs (often written in a less technical, public vernacular) rather than traditional publication, and that facilitates innovative explorations, experimentations, and purposeful tinkerings that often form the basis of a situated understanding emerging from action, not passivity.
  • In the twentieth century, the dominant approach to education focused on helping students to build stocks of knowledge and cognitive skills that could be deployed later in appropriate situations. This approach to education worked well in a relatively stable, slowly changing world in which careers typically lasted a lifetime. But the twenty-first century is quite different.
  • We now need a new approach to learning—one characterized by a demand-pull rather than the traditional supply-push mode of building up an inventory of knowledge in students’ heads. Demand-pull learning shifts the focus to enabling participation in flows of action, where the focus is both on “learning to be” through enculturation into a practice as well as on collateral learning.
  • The demand-pull approach is based on providing students with access to rich (sometimes virtual) learning communities built around a practice. It is passion-based learning, motivated by the student either wanting to become a member of a particular community of practice or just wanting to learn about, make, or perform something. Often the learning that transpires is informal rather than formally conducted in a structured setting. Learning occurs in part through a form of reflective practicum, but in this case the reflection comes from being embedded in a community of practice that may be supported by both a physical and a virtual presence and by collaboration between newcomers and professional practitioners/scholars.
  • The building blocks provided by the OER movement, along with e-Science and e-Humanities and the resources of the Web 2.0, are creating the conditions for the emergence of new kinds of open participatory learning ecosystems23 that will support active, passion-based learning: Learning 2.0.
  • As a graduate student at UC-Berkeley in the late 1970s, Treisman worked on the poor performance of African-Americans and Latinos in undergraduate calculus classes. He discovered the problem was not these students’ lack of motivation or inadequate preparation but rather their approach to studying. In contrast to Asian students, who, Treisman found, naturally formed “academic communities” in which they studied and learned together, African-Americans tended to separate their academic and social lives and studied completely on their own. Treisman developed a program that engaged these students in workshop-style study groups in which they collaborated on solving particularly challenging calculus problems. The program was so successful that it was adopted by many other colleges. See Uri Treisman, “Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College,” College Mathematics Journal, vol. 23, no. 5 (November 1992), pp. 362–72, http://math.sfsu.edu/hsu/workshops/treisman.html.
  • In the early 1970s, Stanford University Professor James Gibbons developed a similar technique, which he called Tutored Videotape Instruction (TVI). Like DSH, TVI was based on showing recorded classroom lectures to groups of students, accompanied by a “tutor” whose job was to stop the tape periodically and ask questions. Evaluations of TVI showed that students’ learning from TVI was as good as or better than in-classroom learning and that the weakest students academically learned more from participating in TVI instruction than from attending lectures in person. See J. F. Gibbons, W. R. Kincheloe, and S. K. Down, “Tutored Video-tape Instruction: A New Use of Electronics Media in Education,” Science, vol. 195 (1977), pp. 1136–49.
Michael Johnson

Teaching in Social and Technological Networks « Connectivism - 17 views

  • The model falls apart when we distribute content and extend the activities of the teacher to include multiple educator inputs and peer-driven learning.
  • Skype brings anyone, from anywhere, into a classroom. Students are not confined to interacting with only the ideas of a researcher or theorist. Instead, a student can interact directly with researchers through Twitter, blogs, Facebook, and listservs. The largely unitary voice of the traditional teacher is fragmented by the limitless conversation opportunities available in networks. When learners have control of the tools of conversation, they also control the conversations in which they choose to engage. Course content is similarly fragmented. The textbook is now augmented with YouTube videos, online articles, simulations, Second Life builds, virtual museums, Diigo content trails, StumpleUpon reflections, and so on.
  • Traditional courses provide a coherent view of a subject. This view is shaped by “learning outcomes” (or objectives). These outcomes drive the selection of content and the design of learning activities. Ideally, outcomes and content/curriculum/instruction are then aligned with the assessment. It’s all very logical: we teach what we say we are going to teach, and then we assess what we said we would teach. This cozy comfortable world of outcomes-instruction-assessment alignment exists only in education. In all other areas of life, ambiguity, uncertainty, and unkowns reign. Fragmentation of content and conversation is about to disrupt this well-ordered view of learning. Educators and universities are beginning to realize that they no longer have the control they once (thought they) did
  • ...18 more annotations...
  • I’ve come to view teaching as a critical and needed activity in the chaotic and ambiguous information climate created by networks.
  • In networks, teachers are one node among many. Learners will, however, likely be somewhat selective of which nodes they follow and listen to. Most likely, a teacher will be one of the more prominent nodes in a learner’s network. Thoughts, ideas, or messages that the teacher amplifies will generally have a greater probability of being seen by course participants. The network of information is shaped by the actions of the teacher in drawing attention to signals (content elements) that are particularly important in a given subject area.
  • While “curator” carries the stigma of dusty museums, the metaphor is appropriate for teaching and learning. The curator, in a learning context, arranges key elements of a subject in such a manner that learners will “bump into” them throughout the course. Instead of explicitly stating “you must know this”, the curator includes critical course concepts in her dialogue with learners, her comments on blog posts, her in-class discussions, and in her personal reflections. As learners grow their own networks of understanding, frequent encounters with conceptual artifacts shared by the teacher will begin to resonate.
  • Today’s social web is no different – we find our way through active exploration. Designers can aid the wayfinding process through consistency of design and functionality across various tools, but ultimately, it is the responsibility of the individual to click/fail/recoup and continue. Fortunately, the experience of wayfinding is now augmented by social systems. Social structures are filters. As a learner grows (and prunes) her personal networks, she also develops an effective means to filter abundance. The network becomes a cognitive agent in this instance – helping the learner to make sense of complex subject areas by relying not only on her own reading and resource exploration, but by permitting her social network to filter resources and draw attention to important topics. In order For these networks to work effectively, learners must be conscious of the need For diversity and should include nodes that offer critical or antagonistic perspectives on all topic areas. Sensemaking in complex environments is a social process.
  • Aggregation should do the same – reveal the content and conversation structure of the course as it unfolds, rather than defining it in advance.
  • Filtering resources is an important educator role, but as noted already, effective filtering can be done through a combination of wayfinding, social sensemaking, and aggregation. But expertise still matters. Educators often have years or decades of experience in a field. As such, they are familiar with many of the concepts, pitfalls, confusions, and distractions that learners are likely to encounter. As should be evident by now, the educator is an important agent in networked learning. Instead of being the sole or dominant filter of information, he now shares this task with other methods and individuals.
  • Filtering can be done in explicit ways – such as selecting readings around course topics – or in less obvious ways – such as writing summary blog posts around topics. Learning is an eliminative process. By determining what doesn’t belong, a learner develops and focuses his understanding of a topic. The teacher assists in the process by providing one stream of filtered information. The student is then faced with making nuanced selections based on the multiple information streams he encounters
  • Stephen’s statements that resonated with many learners centers on modelling as a teaching practice: “To teach is to model and to demonstrate. To learn is to practice and to reflect.” (As far as I can tell, he first made the statement during OCC in 2007).
  • Modelling has its roots in apprenticeship. Learning is a multi-faceted process, involving cognitive, social, and emotional dimensions. Knowledge is similarly multi-faceted, involving declarative, procedural, and academic dimensions. It is unreasonable to expect a class environment to capture the richness of these dimensions. Apprenticeship learning models are among the most effective in attending to the full breadth of learning. Apprenticeship is concerned with more than cognition and knowledge (to know about) – it also addresses the process of becoming a carpenter, plumber, or physician.
  • Without an online identity, you can’t connect with others – to know and be known. I don’t think I’m overstating the importance of have a presence in order to participate in networks. To teach well in networks – to weave a narrative of coherence with learners – requires a point of presence. As a course progresses, the teacher provides summary comments, synthesizes discussions, provides critical perspectives, and directs learners to resources they may not have encountered before.
  • Persistent presence in the learning network is needed for the teacher to amplify, curate, aggregate, and filter content and to model critical thinking and cognitive attributes that reflect the needs of a discipline.
  • Teaching and learning in social and technological networks is similarly surprising – it’s hard to imagine that many of the tools we’re using are less than a decade old (the methods of learning in networks are not new, however. People have always learned in social networks).
  • We’re still early in many of these trends. Many questions remain unanswered about privacy, ethics in networks, and assessment.
  • We’re still early in many of these trends. Many questions remain unanswered about privacy, ethics in networks, and assessment.
  • The tools for controlling both content and conversation have shifted from the educator to the learner. We require a system that acknowledges this reality.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be conscious of the need for diversity and should include nodes that offer critical or antagonistic perspectives on all topic areas. Sensemaking in complex environments is a social process.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be conscious of the need for diversity and should include nodes that offer critical or antagonistic perspectives on all topic areas. Sensemaking in complex environments is a social process.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be conscious of the need for diversity and should include nodes that offer critical or antagonistic perspectives on all topic areas. Sensemaking in complex environments is a social process.
  •  
    Discusses the role of teachers in the learning  process through social networks: He gives seven roles 1. Amplifying, 2. Curating, 3. Wayfinding and socially-driven sensemaking, 4. Aggregating, 5. Filtering, 6. Modelling, 7. Persistent presence. He ends with this provocative thought: "My view is that change in education needs to be systemic and substantial. Education is concerned with content and conversations. The tools for controlling both content and conversation have shifted from the educator to the learner. We require a system that acknowledges this reality."
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