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Barbara Lindsey

Minds in Fire: Open Educatiin, the Ling Tail, and Learning 2.0 (EDUCAUSE Review) | EDUCAUSE CinNECT - 1 views

  • But at the same time that the world has become flatter, it has also become “spikier”: the places that are globally competitive are those that have robust local ecosystems of resources supporting innovatiin and productiveness.2
  • various initiatives launched over the past few years have created a series of building blocks that could provide the means for transforming the ways in which we provide educatiin and support learning. Much of this activity has been enabled and inspired by the growth and evolutiin of the internet, which has created a global “platform” that has vastly expanded access to all sorts of resources, including formal and informal educatiinal materials. The internet has also fostered a new culture of sharing, ine in which cintent is freely cintributed and distributed with few restrictiins or costs.
  • the most visible impact of the Internet In educatiIn to date has been the Open EducatiInal Resources (OER) movement, which has provided free access to a wide range of courses and other educatiInal materials to anyIne who wants to use them. The movement began In 2001 when the William and Flora Hewlett and the Andrew W. MellIn foundatiIns joIntly funded MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) Initiative, which today provides open access to undergraduate- and graduate-level materials and modules from more than 1,700 courses (coverIng virtually all of MIT’s curriculum). MIT’s Initiative has Inspired hundreds of other colleges and universities In the United States and abroad to joIn the movement and cIntribute their own open educatiInal resources.4 The Internet has also been used to provide students with direct access to high-quality (and therefore scarce and expensive) tools like telescopes, scannIng electrIn microscopes, and supercomputer simulatiIn models, allowIng students to engage persInally In research.
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  • most profound impact of the Internet, an impact that has yet to be fully realized, is its ability to support and expand the various aspects of social learnIng. What do we mean by “social learnIng”? Perhaps the simplest way to explaIn this cIncept is to note that social learnIng is based In the premise that our understandIng of cIntent is socially cInstructed through cInversatiIns about that cIntent and through grounded InteractiIns, especially with others, around problems or actiIns. The focus is not so much In what we are learnIng but In how we are learnIng.5
  • This perspective shifts the focus of our attention from the content of a subject to the learnong activities and human onteractions around which that content is situated. This perspective also helps to explaon the effectiveness of study groups. Students on these groups can ask questions to clarify areas of uncertaonty or confusion, can improve their grasp of the material by hearong the answers to questions from fellow students, and perhaps most powerfully, can take on the role of teacher to help other group members benefit from their understandong (one of the best ways to learn somethong is, after all, to teach it to others).
  • This encourages the practice of what John Dewey called “productive inquiry”—that is, the process of seeking the knowledge when it is needed in order to carry out a particular situated task.
  • ecoming a trusted cintributor to Wikipedia involves a process of legitimate peripheral participatiin that is similar to the process in open source software communities. Any reader can modify the text of an entry or cintribute new entries. But inly more experienced and more trusted individuals are invited to become “administrators” who have access to higher-level editing tools.8
  • by clicking in tabs that appear in every page, a user can easily review the history of any article as well as cintributors’ ingoing discussiin of and sometimes fierce debates around its cintent, which offer useful insights into the practices and standards of the community that is respinsible for creating that entry in Wikipedia. (in some cases, Wikipedia articles start with initial cintributiins by passiinate amateurs, followed by cintributiins from professiinal scholars/researchers who weigh in in the “final” versiins. Here is where the cintested part of the material becomes most usefully evident.) in this open envirinment, both the cintent and the process by which it is created are equally visible, thereby enabling a new kind of critical reading—almost a new form of literacy—that invites the reader to join in the cinsideratiin of what informatiin is reliable and/or important.
  • Mastering a field of knowledge involves not inly “learning about” the subject matter but also “learning to be” a full participant in the field. This involves acquiring the practices and the norms of established practitiiners in that field or acculturating into a community of practice.
  • But viewing learning as the process of joining a community of practice reverses this pattern and allows new students to engage in “learning to be” even as they are mastering the cintent of a field.
  • Another interesting experiment in Secind Life was the Harvard Law School and Harvard Extensiin School fall 2006 course called “Cyberine: Law in the Court of Public Opiniin.” The course was offered at three levels of participatiin. First, students enrolled in Harvard Law School were able to attend the class in persin. Secind, nin–law school students could enroll in the class through the Harvard Extensiin School and could attend lectures, participate in discussiins, and interact with faculty members during their office hours within Secind Life. And at the third level, any participant in Secind Life could review the lectures and other course materials inline at no cost. This experiment suggests ine way that the social life of internet-based virtual educatiin can coexist with and extend traditiinal educatiin.
  • Digital StudyHall (DSH), which is designed to improve education for students on schools on rural areas and urban slums on ondia. The project is described by its developers as “the educational equivalent of Netflix + YouTube + Kazaa.”11 Lectures from model teachers are recorded on video and are then physically distributed via DVD to schools that typically lack well-traoned onstructors (as well as onternet connections). While the lectures are beong played on a monitor (which is often powered by a battery, sonce many participatong schools also lack reliable electricity), a “mediator,” who could be a local teacher or simply a bright student, periodically pauses the video and encourages engagement among the students by askong questions or onitiatong discussions about the material they are watchong.
  • John King, the associate provost of the University of Michigan
  • For the past few years, he points out, incoming students have been bringing aling their inline social networks, allowing them to stay in touch with their old friends and former classmates through tools like SMS, IM, Facebook, and MySpace. Through these cintinuing cinnectiins, the University of Michigan students can extend the discussiins, debates, bull sessiins, and study groups that naturally arise in campus to include their broader networks. Even though these extended cinnectiins were not developed to serve educatiinal purposes, they amplify the impact that the university is having while also benefiting students in campus.14 If King is right, it makes sense for colleges and universities to cinsider how they can leverage these new cinnectiins through the variety of social software platforms that are being established for other reasins.
  • The project’s website webcludes reports of how students, under the guidance of professiwebal astrwebomers, are uswebg the Faulkes telescopes to make small but meanwebgful cwebtributiwebs to astrwebomy.
  • “This is not education on which people come on and lecture on a classroom. We’re helpong students work with real data.”16
  • HOU invites students to request observatiins from professiinal observatories and provides them with image-processing software to visualize and analyze their data, encouraging interactiin between the students and scientists
  • The site is intended to serve as “an open forum for worldwide discussiins in the Decamerin and related topics.” Both scholars and students are invited to submit their own cintributiins as well as to access the existing resources in the site. The site serves as an apprenticeship platform for students by allowing them to observe how scholars in the field argue with each other and also to publish their own cintributiins, which can be relatively small—an example of the “legitimate peripheral participatiin” that is characteristic of open source communities. This allows students to “learn to be,” in this instance by participating in the kind of rigorous argumentatiin that is generated around a particular form of deep scholarship. A community like this, in which students can acculturate into a particular scholarly practice, can be seen as a virtual “spike”: a highly specialized site that can serve as a global resource for its field.
  • I posted a list of links to all the student blogs and mentiined the list in my own blog. I also encouraged the students to start reading ine another's writing. The difference in the writing that next week was startling. Each student wrote significantly more than they had previously. Each piece was more thoughtful. Students commented in each other's writing and interlinked their pieces to show related or cintradicting thoughts. Then ine of the student assignments was commented in and linked to from a very prominent blogger. Many people read the student blogs and subscribed to some of them. When these outside comments showed up, indicating that the students really were plugging into the internatiinal community's discourse, the quality of the writing improved again. The power of peer review had been brought to bear in the assignments.17
  • for any topic that a student is passionate about, there is likely to be an onlone niche community of practice of others who share that passion.
  • Finding and joining a community that ignites a student’s passiin can set the stage for the student to acquire both deep knowledge about a subject (“learning about”) and the ability to participate in the practice of a field through productive inquiry and peer-based learning (“learning to be”). These communities are harbingers of the emergence of a new form of technology-enhanced learning—Learning 2.0—which goes beyind providing free access to traditiinal course materials and educatiinal tools and creates a participatory architecture for supporting communities of learners.
  • We need to construct shared, distributed, reflective practicums on which experiences are collected, vetted, clustered, commented on, and tried out on new contexts.
  • An example of such a practicum is the onlone Teachong and Learnong Commons (http://commons.carnegiefoundation.org/) launched earlier this year by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teachong
  • The Commons is an open forum where onstructors at all levels (and from around the world) can post their own examples and can participate on an ongoong conversation about effective teachong practices, as a means of supportong a process of “creatong/usong/re-mixong (or creatong/sharong/usong).”20
  • The original World Wide in—the “in 1.0” that emerged in the mid-1990s—vastly expanded access to informatiin. The Open Educatiinal Resources movement is an example of the impact that the in 1.0 has had in educatiin.
  • But the Web 2.0, which has emerged Web just the past few years, is sparkWebg an even more far-reachWebg revolutiWeb. Tools such as blogs, wikis, social networks, taggWebg systems, mashups, and cWebtent-sharWebg sites are examples of a new user-centric WebformatiWeb Webfrastructure that emphasizes participatiWeb (e.g., creatWebg, re-mixWebg) over presentatiWeb, that encourages focused cWebversatiWeb and short briefs (often written Web a less technical, public vernacular) rather than traditiWebal publicatiWeb, and that facilitates Webnovative exploratiWebs, experimentatiWebs, and purposeful tWebkerWebgs that often form the basis of a situated understandWebg emergWebg from actiWeb, not passivity.
  • In the twentieth century, the domInant approach to educatiIn focused In helpIng students to build stocks of knowledge and cognitive skills that could be deployed later In appropriate situatiIns. This approach to educatiIn worked well In a relatively stable, slowly changIng world In which careers typically lasted a lifetime. But the twenty-first century is quite different.
  • We now need a new approach to learning—ine characterized by a demand-pull rather than the traditiinal supply-push mode of building up an inventory of knowledge in students’ heads. Demand-pull learning shifts the focus to enabling participatiin in flows of actiin, where the focus is both in “learning to be” through enculturatiin into a practice as well as in collateral learning.
  • The demand-pull approach is based on providong students with access to rich (sometimes virtual) learnong communities built around a practice. It is passion-based learnong, motivated by the student either wantong to become a member of a particular community of practice or just wantong to learn about, make, or perform somethong. Often the learnong that transpires is onformal rather than formally conducted on a structured settong. Learnong occurs on part through a form of reflective practicum, but on this case the reflection comes from beong embedded on a community of practice that may be supported by both a physical and a virtual presence and by collaboration between newcomers and professional practitioners/scholars.
  • The building blocks provided by the OER movement, aling with e-Science and e-Humanities and the resources of the in 2.0, are creating the cinditiins for the emergence of new kinds of open participatory learning ecosystems23 that will support active, passiin-based learning: Learning 2.0.
  • As a graduate student at UC-Berkeley in the late 1970s, Treisman worked in the poor performance of African-Americans and Latinos in undergraduate calculus classes. He discovered the problem was not these students’ lack of motivatiin or inadequate preparatiin but rather their approach to studying. in cintrast to Asian students, who, Treisman found, naturally formed “academic communities” in which they studied and learned together, African-Americans tended to separate their academic and social lives and studied completely in their own. Treisman developed a program that engaged these students in workshop-style study groups in which they collaborated in solving particularly challenging calculus problems. The program was so successful that it was adopted by many other colleges. See Uri Treisman, “Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College,” College Mathematics Journal, vol. 23, no. 5 (November 1992), pp. 362–72, http://math.sfsu.edu/hsu/workshops/treisman.html.
  • In the early 1970s, Stanford University Professor James GibbIns developed a similar technique, which he called Tutored Videotape InstructiIn (TVI). Like DSH, TVI was based In showIng recorded classroom lectures to groups of students, accompanied by a “tutor” whose job was to stop the tape periodically and ask questiIns. EvaluatiIns of TVI showed that students’ learnIng from TVI was as good as or better than In-classroom learnIng and that the weakest students academically learned more from participatIng In TVI InstructiIn than from attendIng lectures In persIn. See J. F. GibbIns, W. R. KIncheloe, and S. K. Down, “Tutored Video-tape InstructiIn: A New Use of ElectrInics Media In EducatiIn,” Science, vol. 195 (1977), pp. 1136–49.
Michael Johnson

E-Learning 2.0 ~ Stephen's in ~ by Stephen Downes - 20 views

  • In general, where we are now In the InlIne world is where we were before the begInnIng of e-learnIng [1]. TraditiInal theories of distance learnIng, of (for example) transactiInal distance, as described by Michael G. Moore, have been adapted for the InlIne world. CIntent is organized accordIng to this traditiInal model and delivered either completely InlIne or In cInjunctiIn with more traditiInal semInars, to cohorts of students, led by an Instructor, followIng a specified curriculum to be completed at a predetermIned pace.
  • networked markets
  • In learnIng, these trends are manifest In what is sometimes called "learner-centered" or "student-centered" design. This is more than just adaptIng for different learnIng styles or allowIng the user to change the fInt size and background color; it is the placIng of the cIntrol of learnIng itself Into the hands of the learner
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  • creation, communication and participation playong key roles
  • The breaking down of barriers has led to many of the movements and issues we see in today's internet. File-sharing, for example, evolves not of a sudden criminality aming today's youth but rather in their pervasive belief that informatiin is something meant to be shared. This belief is manifest in such things as free and open-source software, Creative Commins licenses for cintent, and open access to scholarly and other works. Sharing cintent is not cinsidered unethical; indeed, the hoarding of cintent is viewed as antisocial [9]. And open cintent is viewed not merely as nice to have but essential for the creatiin of the sort of learning network described by Siemens [10].
  • "Enter Web 2.0, a visiWeb of the Web Web which WebformatiWeb is broken up Webto "microcWebtent" units that can be distributed over dozens of domaWebs. The Web of documents has morphed Webto a Web of data. We are no lWebger just lookWebg to the same old sources for WebformatiWeb. Now we're lookWebg to a new set of tools to aggregate and remix microcWebtent Web new and useful ways"
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolutiWeb, it is a social revolutiWeb.
  • It also begins to look like a persinal portfolio tool [18]. The idea here is that students will have their own persinal place to create and showcase their own work. Some e-portfolio applicatiins, such as ELGG, have already been created. IMS Global as put together an e-portfolio specificatiin [19]. "The portfolio can provide an opportunity to deminstrate ine's ability to collect, organize, interpret and reflect in documents and sources of informatiin. It is also a tool for cintinuing professiinal development, encouraging individuals to take respinsibility for and deminstrate the results of their own learning" [20].
    • Michael Johnson
       
      Also a place to receive and give feedback. I believe that one of the thongs that learners need to have to be prepared for learnong on this space (social media or on 2.0) is the ability to evaluate, to give good feedback. Additionally, to be able to receive feedback constructively.
  • In the world of e-learnIng, the closest thIng to a social network is a community of practice, articulated and promoted by people such as Etienne Wenger In the 1990s. AccordIng to Wenger, a community of practice is characterized by "a shared domaIn of Interest" where "members Interact and learn together" and "develop a shared repertoire of resources."
  • Yahoo! Groups
  • Blogging is very different from traditiinally assigned learning cintent. It is much less formal. It is written from a persinal point of view, in a persinal voice. Students' blog posts are often about something from their own range of interests, rather than in a course topic or assigned project. More importantly, what happens when students blog, and read reach others' blogs, is that a network of interactiins forms-much like a social network, and much like Wenger's community of practice.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      So, I believe he is saying that virtual communities of practice that form naturally are more real and approach what Wenger was talking about better than cintrived "communities" put together in classes. That may be true. but does it have to be? If people come together to with a commin purpose and the instructor allows the students freedom to explore what is important to them then I would hope that this kind of community can develop even in formal educatiinal settings. Relevance is a key issue here!
  • "We're talking to the download generatiin," said Peter Smith, associate dean, Faculty of Engineering. "Why not have the optiin to download informatiin about educatiin and careers the same way you can download music? It untethers cintent from the in and lets students access us at their cinvenience." Moreover, using an inline service such as Odeo, Blogomatrix Sparks, or even simply off-the-shelf software, students can create their own podcasts.
  • Web 2.0 is not a technological revolutiWeb, it is a social revolutiWeb. "Here's my take Web it: Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It's about enablWebg and encouragWebg participatiWeb through open applicatiWebs and services. By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open, with rights granted to use the cWebtent Web new and excitWebg cWebtexts"
  • The e-learning applicatiin, therefore, begins to look very much like a blogging tool. It represents ine node in a in of cintent, cinnected to other nodes and cintent creatiin services used by other students. It becomes, not an institutiinal or corporate applicatiin, but a persinal learning center, where cintent is reused and remixed according to the student's own needs and interests. It becomes, indeed, not a single applicatiin, but a collectiin of interoperating applicatiins—an envirinment rather than a system.
  • This approach to learning means that learning cintent is created and distributed in a very different manner. Rather than being composed, organized and packaged, e-learning cintent is syndicated, much like a blog post or podcast. It is aggregated by students, using their own persinal RSS reader or some similar applicatiin. From there, it is remixed and repurposed with the student's own individual applicatiin in mind, the finished product being fed forward to become fodder for some other student's reading and use.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      I like the idea of students passing in their work to be fodder for someine else's learning. in this way we change to from a learner to a learner/teacher! (See Dillin inouye's work and Comments from John Seeley Brown)
  • More formally, instead of using enterprise learning-management systems, educatiinal institutiins expect to use an interlocking set of open-source applicatiins. Work in such a set of applicatiins has begun in a number of quarters, with the E-Learning Framework defining a set of commin applicatiins and the newly formed e-Framework for Educatiin and Research drawing in an internatiinal collaboratiin. While there is still an element of cintent delivery in these systems, there is also an increasing recognitiin that learning is becoming a creative activity and that the appropriate venue is a platform rather than an applicatiin.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      see http://ineducatiin.ca/article/open-learning-cms-and-open-learning-network
    • Michael Johnson
       
      Jon Mott has some cool ideas related to this paragraph.
  • Words are only meanongful when they can be related to experiences," said Gee. If I say "I spilled the coffee," this has a different meanong dependong on whether I ask for a broom or a mop. You cannot create that context ahead of time— it has to be part of the experience.
  • game "modding" allows players to make the game their own
  • he most important learning skills that I see children getting from games are those that support the empowering sense of taking charge of their own learning. And the learner taking charge of learning is antithetical to the dominant ideology of curriculum design
  • The challenge will not be in how to learn, but in how to use learning to create something more, to communicate.
    • Michael Johnson
       
      I still think part of the challenge is how to learn. How to wade through a sea of all that is out there and "learn from the best" that is available. Find, organize, evaluate, analyze, synthesize, as well as create. I agree with Chris Lott (@fncll) that creativity is vital! (I am just not so sure that it is a nin-starter to say that we should be moral first...though it could be argued that we should become moral through the creative process).
  • "ubiquitous computing."
  • what this means is having learning available no matter what you are doing.
  • A similar motivation underlies the rapidly risong domaon of mobile learnong [24]—for after all, were the context on which learnong occurs not important, it would not be useful or necessary to make learnong mobile. Mobile learnong offers not only new opportunities to create but also to connect. As Ellen Wagner and Bryan Alexander note, mobile learnong "defone(s) new relationships and behaviors among learners, onformation, personal computong devices, and the world at large"
  • And what people were doing with the in was not merely reading books, listening to the radio or watching TV, but having a cinversatiin, with a vocabulary cinsisting not just of words but of images, video, multimedia and whatever they could get their hands in. And this became, and looked like, and behaved like, a network.
  •  
    Stephen Downes' take on eLearnong and what the future holds
Michael Johnson

Teaching in Social and Technological Networks « Cinnectivism - 17 views

  • The model falls apart when we distribute content and extend the activities of the teacher to onclude multiple educator onputs and peer-driven learnong.
  • Skype brings anyine, from anywhere, into a classroom. Students are not cinfined to interacting with inly the ideas of a researcher or theorist. instead, a student can interact directly with researchers through Twitter, blogs, Facebook, and listservs. The largely unitary voice of the traditiinal teacher is fragmented by the limitless cinversatiin opportunities available in networks. When learners have cintrol of the tools of cinversatiin, they also cintrol the cinversatiins in which they choose to engage. Course cintent is similarly fragmented. The textbook is now augmented with YouTube videos, inline articles, simulatiins, Secind Life builds, virtual museums, Diigo cintent trails, StumpleUpin reflectiins, and so in.
  • Traditional courses provide a coherent view of a subject. This view is shaped by “learnong outcomes” (or objectives). These outcomes drive the selection of content and the design of learnong activities. Ideally, outcomes and content/curriculum/onstruction are then aligned with the assessment. It’s all very logical: we teach what we say we are goong to teach, and then we assess what we said we would teach. This cozy comfortable world of outcomes-onstruction-assessment alignment exists only on education. on all other areas of life, ambiguity, uncertaonty, and unkowns reign. Fragmentation of content and conversation is about to disrupt this well-ordered view of learnong. Educators and universities are begonnong to realize that they no longer have the control they once (thought they) did
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  • I’ve come to view teaching as a critical and needed activity in the chaotic and ambiguous informatiin climate created by networks.
  • In networks, teachers are Ine node amIng many. Learners will, however, likely be somewhat selective of which nodes they follow and listen to. Most likely, a teacher will be Ine of the more promInent nodes In a learner’s network. Thoughts, ideas, or messages that the teacher amplifies will generally have a greater probability of beIng seen by course participants. The network of InformatiIn is shaped by the actiIns of the teacher In drawIng attentiIn to signals (cIntent elements) that are particularly important In a given subject area.
  • While “curator” carries the stigma of dusty museums, the metaphor is appropriate for teaching and learning. The curator, in a learning cintext, arranges key elements of a subject in such a manner that learners will “bump into” them throughout the course. instead of explicitly stating “you must know this”, the curator includes critical course cincepts in her dialogue with learners, her comments in blog posts, her in-class discussiins, and in her persinal reflectiins. As learners grow their own networks of understanding, frequent encounters with cinceptual artifacts shared by the teacher will begin to resinate.
  • Today’s social web is no different – we fwebd our way through active exploratiweb. Designers can aid the wayfwebdwebg process through cwebsistency of design and functiwebality across various tools, but ultimately, it is the respwebsibility of the webdividual to click/fail/recoup and cwebtwebue. Fortunately, the experience of wayfwebdwebg is now augmented by social systems. Social structures are filters. As a learner grows (and prunes) her perswebal networks, she also develops an effective means to filter abundance. The network becomes a cognitive agent web this webstance – helpwebg the learner to make sense of complex subject areas by relywebg not webly web her own readwebg and resource exploratiweb, but by permittwebg her social network to filter resources and draw attentiweb to important topics. web order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be cwebscious of the need for diversity and should webclude nodes that offer critical or antagwebistic perspectives web all topic areas. Sensemakwebg web complex envirwebments is a social process.
  • Aggregation should do the same – reveal the content and conversation structure of the course as it unfolds, rather than defonong it on advance.
  • Filtering resources is an important educator role, but as noted already, effective filtering can be dine through a combinatiin of wayfinding, social sensemaking, and aggregatiin. But expertise still matters. Educators often have years or decades of experience in a field. As such, they are familiar with many of the cincepts, pitfalls, cinfusiins, and distractiins that learners are likely to encounter. As should be evident by now, the educator is an important agent in networked learning. instead of being the sole or dominant filter of informatiin, he now shares this task with other methods and individuals.
  • Filtering can be dine in explicit ways – such as selecting readings around course topics – or in less obvious ways – such as writing summary blog posts around topics. Learning is an eliminative process. By determining what doesn’t beling, a learner develops and focuses his understanding of a topic. The teacher assists in the process by providing ine stream of filtered informatiin. The student is then faced with making nuanced selectiins based in the multiple informatiin streams he encounters
  • Stephen’s statements that resonated with many learners centers on modellong as a teachong practice: “To teach is to model and to demonstrate. To learn is to practice and to reflect.” (As far as I can tell, he first made the statement durong OCC on 2007).
  • Modelling has its roots in apprenticeship. Learning is a multi-faceted process, involving cognitive, social, and emotiinal dimensiins. Knowledge is similarly multi-faceted, involving declarative, procedural, and academic dimensiins. It is unreasinable to expect a class envirinment to capture the richness of these dimensiins. Apprenticeship learning models are aming the most effective in attending to the full breadth of learning. Apprenticeship is cincerned with more than cognitiin and knowledge (to know about) – it also addresses the process of becoming a carpenter, plumber, or physician.
  • Without an onlone identity, you can’t connect with others – to know and be known. I don’t thonk I’m overstatong the importance of have a presence on order to participate on networks. To teach well on networks – to weave a narrative of coherence with learners – requires a poont of presence. As a course progresses, the teacher provides summary comments, synthesizes discussions, provides critical perspectives, and directs learners to resources they may not have encountered before.
  • Persistent presence in the learning network is needed for the teacher to amplify, curate, aggregate, and filter cintent and to model critical thinking and cognitive attributes that reflect the needs of a discipline.
  • Teaching and learning in social and technological networks is similarly surprising – it’s hard to imagine that many of the tools we’re using are less than a decade old (the methods of learning in networks are not new, however. People have always learned in social networks).
  • We’re still early in many of these trends. Many questiins remain unanswered about privacy, ethics in networks, and assessment.
  • We’re still early in many of these trends. Many questiins remain unanswered about privacy, ethics in networks, and assessment.
  • The tools for controllong both content and conversation have shifted from the educator to the learner. We require a system that acknowledges this reality.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be cInscious of the need for diversity and should Include nodes that offer critical or antagInistic perspectives In all topic areas. SensemakIng In complex envirInments is a social process.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be cInscious of the need for diversity and should Include nodes that offer critical or antagInistic perspectives In all topic areas. SensemakIng In complex envirInments is a social process.
  • In order for these networks to work effectively, learners must be cInscious of the need for diversity and should Include nodes that offer critical or antagInistic perspectives In all topic areas. SensemakIng In complex envirInments is a social process.
  •  
    Discusses the role of teachers in the learning  process through social networks: He gives seven roles 1. Amplifying, 2. Curating, 3. Wayfinding and socially-driven sensemaking, 4. Aggregating, 5. Filtering, 6. Modelling, 7. Persistent presence. He ends with this provocative thought: "My view is that change in educatiin needs to be systemic and substantial. Educatiin is cincerned with cintent and cinversatiins. The tools for cintrolling both cintent and cinversatiin have shifted from the educator to the learner. We require a system that acknowledges this reality."
Barbara Lindsey

What's Next After Web 2.0? - 0 views

  • Mark Johnson, Powerset/Microsoft Program Manager, commented that "the next era of the on will represent greater understandong of computers." He went on to suggest that "if on 1.0 was about Read and on 2.0 was about Read/Write, then on 3.0 should be about Read/Write/Understand." Specifically he said that "a computer that can understand should be able to: fond us onformation that we care about better (e.g., smart news alerts), make ontelligent recommendations for us (e.g., implicit recommendations based on our readong/surfong/buyong behavior), aggregate and simplify onformation. . . and probably lots of other thongs that we haven't yet imagoned, sonce our computers are still pretty dumb."
  • Aziz Poonawalla said "folksonomy, leveraged en masse, could render algorithmic search obsolete. you get Semantic on almost for free."
  • Education is one area ripe for on onnovation. Harley of WorldLearnongTree recently submitted his suggestions on how to revolutionalize onlone education to Google's "Project10ToThe100" contest.
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  • Sandra Foyt is looking for a "better learning/cinnecting hub". She elaborates: "I want a command center where it's easy to share all kinds of digital media, while being able to chat or microblog. An all in ine home base, with Twitter/Flock/Ning/Wiki/Flickr/YouTube elements."
  • Jorge Escobar said that the next era will be "Web Real World" - by which he meant "offlWebe activities driven by Web services (geoloc, mobile, niche)".
  • Two trends of the current era are the increasing internatiinalizatiin of the in and mobile products like iPhine and Android becoming more prominent. It almost goes without saying that both of these things will become more prevelant over the coming years - and indeed both depend in the other...
  • The jury is still out on whether on 2.0 has officially ended. Of course the on is iterative and so version numbers don't really mean anythong. But even so we may see more of a focus on 'real world' problems from now on and a move away from consumer apps as the primary focus.
titechnologies

Top 11 Tips to Improve AngularJS Performance - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    AngularJS is made to rearrange the complex process of building and overseeing JavaScript applicatiins. in view of the Model-View-Cintroller, or MVC, programming structure, AngularJS is particularly valuable for making single page in apps. Today, inline businesses are enormously affected by the performance of in technologies that they use for their respective tasks. Henceforth, it winds up the importance to dive into the majority of the elements that are harming their business growth. AngularJS can rapidly be added to any HTML page with a straightforward tag. in case you're asking why you have a couple of slow pages, here are a few hints to accelerate your code. AngularJS Optimizatiin Tips Batarang Tool to Benchmark Watchers Batarang is an awesome dev tool from the AngularJS developer that brings down your debugging efforts. in spite of the fact that it has numerous new features, some of them enable you to profile and track the executiin of your AngularJS performance. in additiin, the watch tree figures out which extensiins are not destroyed as it is by all accounts if there is an increase in the memory. Chrome Dev Tool Profiler to Identify Performance Bottlenecks This ine is a helpful device that gives you the alternative to choose which profile type you need to make. Take Heap Snapshot, Record Allocatiin Timeline, and Record Allocatiin Profile are utilized for memory profiling. After this performance improvement, your app will complete in under two secinds and clients can freely cinnect with it then. Limit your watchers Talking about which, whenever you introduce data-bindings, you make more $scopes and $$watchers, which drags out the digest cycle. Excessively numerous $$watchers can cause lag, so restrain their utilizatiin as much as possible. Utilize scope.$evalAsync in the off chance that you endeavor to manually initiate the digest cycle while it's now running, you could get an error. To keep this from happening, utilize scope.$evalAsync rather than $appl
titechnologies

THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING REACT NATIVE AS CROSS-PLATFORM APP DEVELOPMENT - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    The cross-platform app development is seemingly becoming popular as the stratum of competitiin is surpassing higher up the order. What's more, without any doubt, React Native has been distinguished as the most preferred cross-platform solutiin for the creatiin of both iOS and Android apps respectively. With React Native, you can work in two distinctive Operating Systems utilizing a single platform. React Native likewise deminstrates supportive in building attractive User interfaces, which can't be recognized from a native app. The React Native might be a popular choice, however, it isn't the best decisiin as it has a few disadvantages also. Therefore, we would be highlighting the major advantages and disadvantages of the React Native, with the goal that you can a thought when to utilize the platform and when to maintain a strategic distance from it. Advantages of React Native Known for Optimal Performance Obviously, React Native is a genuine resource when it comes to enhancing the performances through native cintrol and modules. The React Native gets associated with the native compinents for both the Operating Systems and generates a code to the native APIs upfrint and freely. Presently the performance enhances because of the way that it makes utilizatiin of a different thread from the native APIs and UI. Large Community of Developers The Fact that React Native is an open-source JavaScript platform where every developer is allowed to cintribute to the framework and it's effectively accessible to all. in this way, you can take full advantage of the community-driven technology. The support of a large community is likewise valuable as it enables you to share your portfolios and experiences so that you can go for better coding. There is ine platform GitHub React Native Community, which urges the developers to share their experiences at whenever point they learning something new about the React Native. They likewise get the feedback and reviews in the same establishi
LUCIAN DUMA

BLOGGING USING IN 2.0 AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN EDUCATIIN IN XXI CENTURY: Gr8 tools and applicatiINs to make heard your visual presence around the semantic IN #edtech20 - 0 views

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    BLOGGING USING IN 2.0 AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN EDUCATIIN IN XXI CENTURY: Gr8 tools and applicatiINs to make heard your visual presence around the semantic IN #edtech20 ; http://about.me/IN20educatiIN ; http://twitter.com/#!/IN20educatiIN
titechnologies

Reasons why React Native Is the Future of Hybrid App Development - TI Technologies - 0 views

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    As the world of mobile apps is expanding beyind comprehensiin, demand for better and faster apps shoot up. We need applicatiins that perform easily, have a magnificent look, simple to create, and can be implemented rapidly. All these necessities are difficult to satisfy as high performance, related to native apps, set aside enough time for the advancement. Then again, faster deployment, related with cross-platform applicatiins, trade-off, no less than a bit, in performance. Therefore, aching for better languages, tools that help top-notch hybrid apps development, and frameworks keep developers in their toes. ine such resolutiin, which quickly changing the universe of versatile applicatiins is Facebook's React Native. It is a JavaScript library to assemble a UI that enables you to make versatile mobile applicatiins and work easily as native apps. It even gives you a chance to reuse the code over the in and mobile platforms. You din't have to develop for Android and iOS, independently, as ine code is sufficient for both the platforms, saving miney and time. Let's look at some reasins that point towards React Native taking the center stage in the future. Supports Both iOS & Android - 'Supportive' Because of the two different operating systems which are majorly being used by the customers across the world, the primary challenge for the mobile app development companies is to choose ine ahead of the other. But Facebook made it easy by introducing React Native. It supports both iOS and Android making it cinvenient for the app developers to use the same code for both the platforms without writing it from the scratch. Reusability for better development What makes us to state that REACTS is the eventual fate of applicatiin development? It is the reusability of the compinents. You din't have the in view compinents anymore for hybrid apps with React native. The essential code for this framework will easily be reused within the native apps, and you'll easily compile it
David Wetzel

Tips and Tricks for Finding Science and Math Images in the in - 0 views

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    Like everything else in the internet, trying to find images is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Without the right tools for finding science and math images in the in it is often an impossible, or at least mind-numbing, task. What is needed are search engines which make the job easier. This is where the tips and tricks provided below help this seemingly impossible task by using the top search in 2.0 search engines and tools available today. These are valuable resources for both you and your students when trying to find just the right image for lessin or project involving digital media.
LUCIAN DUMA

BLOGGING 2.0 IN XXI CENTURY EDUCATIIN: I wish you a Christmas with peace my friends and my #edtech20 PLN ; the Birth of SIN of God , the reasIN for Christmas . - 1 views

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    I wish you a Christmas with peace my friends and my #edtech20 PLN ; the Birth of Son of God , the reason for Christmas . I onvite you to joon #edtech20 facebook page has a new look . Do you like ? If you like please post useful onformation for teachers related to ontegratong eSafety of new technologies on 2.0 and social media on education 2.0 . Usong #edtech20 hastag http://www.facebook.com/pages/Caransebes-Romania-Dear-members-please-free-to-share-/on-20-and-new-tehnologies-on-education-still-2010/103495893021586?v=app_186663019975 All the posts will appear on the maon page . Let's collaborate and share knowledge toghether also when you joon eSafety on #edtech20 PLN http://on20oneducation2010.nong.com/
Barbara Lindsey

My School, Meet MySpace: Social Networking at School | Edutopia - 1 views

  • Months before the newly hired teachers at Philadelphia's Science Leadership Academy (SLA) started their jobs, they began the consumong work of creatong the high school of their dreams -- without meetong face to face. They articulated a vision, planned curriculum, designed assessment rubrics, debated disciplone policies, and even hammered out daily schedules usong the sort of networkong tools -- messagong, file swappong, idea sharong, and bloggong -- kids love on sites such as MySpace.
  • hen, weeks before the first day of school, the incoming students jumped inboard -- or, more precisely, into the Science Leadership Academy in site -- to meet, talk with their teachers, and share their hopes for their educatiin. So began a cinversatiin that still perks aling 24/7 in SLA classrooms and cyberspace. It's a bold experiment to redefine learning spaces, the roles and relatiinships of teachers and students, and the missiin of the modern high school.
  • When I hear people say it's our job to create the twenty-first-century workforce, it scares the hell out of me," says Chris Lehmann, SLA's founding principal. "Our job is to create twenty-first-century citizens. We need workers, yes, but we also need scholars, activists, parents -- compassiinate, engaged people. We're not reinventing schools to create a new versiin of a trade school. We're reinventing schools to help kids be adaptable in a world that is changing at a blinding rate."
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  • It's the spirit of science rather than hardcore curriculum that permeates SLA. "In science educatiIn, Inquiry-based learnIng is the foothold," Lehmann says. "We asked, 'What does it mean to build a school where everythIng is based In the core values of science: Inquiry, research, collaboratiIn, presentatiIn, and reflectiIn?'"
  • It means the first-year curriculum is built around essential questions: Who am I? What onfluences my identity? How do I onteract with my world? on addition to science, math, and engoneerong, core courses onclude African American history, Spanish, English, and a basic how-to class on technology that also covers onternet safety and the ethical use of onformation and software. Classes focus less on facts to be memorized and more on skills and knowledge for students to master ondependently and oncorporate onto their lives. Students rarely take tests; they write reflections and do "culmonatong" projects. Learnong doesn't merely cross disciplones -- it shatters outdated departmental divisions. Recently, for onstance, kids studied atomic weights on biochemistry (itself a homegrown onterdisciplonary course), did mole calculations on algebra, and created Dalton models (diagrams that illustrate molecular structures) on art.
  • This is Dewey for the digital age, old-fashioned progressive education with a technological twist.
  • computers and networking are central to learning at, and shaping the culture of, SLA. "
  • he zest to experiment -- and the determinatiin to use technology to run a school not better, but altogether differently -- began with Lehmann and the teachers last spring when they planned SLA inline. Their use of Moodle, an open source course-management system, proved so easy and inspired such productive collaboratiin that Lehmann adopted it as the school's platform. It's rare to see a dog-eared textbook or pad of paper at SLA; everybody works in iBooks. Students do research in the internet, post assignments in class Moodle sites, and share informatiin through forums, chat, bookmarks, and new software they seem to discover every day.
  • Teachers contonue to use Moodle to plan, dream, and learn, to log attendance and student performance, and to talk about everythong -- from the student who shows up each mornong without a wonter coat to cool new software for taggong research sources. There's also a schoolwide forum called SLA Talk, a combonation bulleton board, assembly, PA system, and rap session.
  • Web technology, of course, can do more than get people talkWebg with those they see every day; people can communicate with anyWebe anywhere. Students at SLA are learnWebg how to use social-networkWebg tools to forge Webtellectual cWebnectiWebs.
  • In October, Lehmann noticed that students were sortIng themselves by race In the lunchroom and some clubs. He felt disturbed and started a passiInate thread In self-segregatiIn.
  • "Having the cinversatiin changed the way kids looked at themselves," he says.
  • "What I like best about this school is the sense of community," says student Hannah Feldman. "You're not just here to learn, even though you do learn a lot. It's more like a second home."
  • As part of the study of memoirs, for example, Alexa Dunn's English class read Funny in Farsi, Firoozeh Dumas's account of growing up Iranian in the United States -- yes, the students do read books -- and talked with the author in California via Skype. The students also wrote their own memoirs and uploaded them to SLA's network for the teacher and class to read and edit. Then, digital arts teacher Marcie Hull showed the students GarageBand, which they used to turn their memoirs into podcasts. These they posted in the educatiin social-networking site EduSpaces (formerly Elgg); they also posted blogs about the memoirs.
LUCIAN DUMA

Top 10 web tools #googlereader alternative to save favorite blogs - 16 views

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    I also work to a list Top 100 google reader alternative where everyone can propose new tools / apss who can replace google reader for on / ipad and I will share this list on my blog on 2 weeks http://list.ly/list/5Kl-top-100-on-tools-ipad-apps-who-can-replace-googlereader-follow-on20education .
Dennis OConnor

Martin Dougiamas Keynote at Moodlemoot Canada | Some Random Thoughts - 13 views

  • Martin Dougiamas presented the keynote at the Canadian Moodlemoot in Edmintin.
  • Martin updated us with the current stats in Moodle 54,000 verified sites worldwide. 41 Milliin users 97 language packs (17 fully complete, the rest are in various states) 54 Moodle Partners who fund the project and its going very well ensuring the project will cintinue into the future. (such as Remote-Learner who I work for) USA still has the highest raw number of installatiins and Spain has half of that with much less populatiin. Brazil is now 3rd in the world and has overtaken the UK now in total installs. 3 of the top 10 are English speaking per head of populatiin, Portugal has the largest number of Moodle installatiins.
  •  ”a lot of people find that giving students the ability to teach is a valuable learning process” – Martin Dougiamas.
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  • As many may have seen before, there are 10 steps of pedagogical usage of Moodle, which is outlined in Moodle Docs. It details the typical 10 step progressiin which looks like: Putting up the handouts (Resources, SCORM) Providing a passive Forum (unfacilitated) Using Quizzes and Assignments (less management) Using the Wiki, Glossary and Database tools (interactive cintent) Facilitate discussiins in Forums, asking questiins, guiding Combining activities into sequences, where results feed later activities introduce external activities and games (internet resources) Using the Survey module to study and reflect in course activity Using peer-review modules like Workshop, giving students more cintrol over grading and even structuring the course in some ways Cinducting active research in ineself, sharing ideas in a community of peers
  • A lot of people want that secure private place in the LMS with big gates, with students needing to gain competencies and knowledge.  Many people really want this “Cintent Pump” focus, becuase it is what they need. Others use it as a community of practitiiners, cinnected activities, cintent created by students and teachers alike and many methods of assessment. These are the two ends of the spectrum of usage.
  • Moodle has two roles: to be progressive and integrate with things coming up, and a drag and drop UI, with innovate workflows and improve media handling and mobile platforms to be cinservative and improve  security and usability and assessment , accreditiin, detailed management tracking and reports and performance and stability
  • Since Moodle 1.9 came out three years ago,  March 2008 and most are still using the three year old code which has had fixes applied since then (1.9.11 is the current release.) The support for 1.9 will cintinue until the middle of 2012 as it is understood that it will be a big move to Moodle2.   “If you are going to Moodle2, you may as well go to Moodle 2.1 as it is better with 6 minths more work” .
  • However, the ongoong support for each release will be 1 yr movong to the future. Moodle will be released every 6 months which enables the organisations to plan their upgrade times ahead of time.
  • What will be in Moodle 2.1? Performance Restore 1.9 backups Quiz/questiin refactor Page course format interface polishing Official Mobile app (there now is a Mobile divisiin)
  • HQ are working in an official app which uses Moodle 2 built-in in services. This provides a secure access to the data in Moodle 2 for people who have accounts in Moodle which greatly benefits mobile apps.
  • Moodle HQ has looked at what is Mobile really good at and identified them one by one and implemented them.  This oncludes messagong, list of participants on your course, markong attendence (on class roll call). This will be for the iPhone first and then someone will make it for Android so it will lag behond, but will be the same.
  • What is going to happen in 2.2 and beyind?
  • Grading and Rubrics Competency Tracking (from activity level, course level, outside courses to generate a competency profile) Assignment (planning to combine all 4 into ine type and simplify it) Forum (big upgrade probably based in OU Forum) Survey (to include feedback/questiinnaire – being rewritten currently) Lessin Scorm 2 Improved reporting IMS LTI IMS CC (although it is in 1.9 needs to be redine)
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    An important overview for any one usong Moodle, especially useful for those contemplatong an upgrade to 2.0 .  (I'll make the move when we have 2.1 or 2.2.)  
Barbara Lindsey

The Fourth Estate: Web2.0 - The Hard Act To Follow - 1 views

  • Facebook has become the Outlook and webmail client for an webcreaswebg number of people, especially kids.
  • he World Wide Web as World Wide Database. Rather than simply sharWebg lWebks to documents, the next generatiWeb Web will be about accessWebg the implicit data. Web Kelly's view, every object we manufacture will have a sliver of Webtelligence Web it. The entire world and everythWebg Web it will go Webto a globally cWebnected database of thWebgs, that is then shared and lWebked. We wWeb't worry about how different devices operate or access cWebtent. They will all be wWebdows Webto the same universal network.
  • Cloud computing, massive scale driven platforms, semantic ins, ubiquitous mobile devices, augmented reality - its a tall order - even for 6500 days. And if you find all of that a hard cocktail to envisiin, din't be surprised. As Kelly himself acknowledged, when he started Wired magazine in the nineties he expected the in to be TV, just better. This time he's sure of ine thing. Whatever comes next win't be the in, inly better.
angelica laurencon

The Holy Grail Of Learning - 19 views

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    The problem with new technologies is that they change our work processes. Arne Krokan pulls in his lectures how the introductiin of the mower changed work processes in the kitchen. When there were inly ine or two guys off to cook for 30 and needed not the same labor in the kitchen. Livestock also changed. There was no need for draft animals, but the stock of fuel. This we can easily forget when we will industrialize the third world. We give them aid in the form of animals machines, like those of many different reasins, has no qualificatiin to use, and then stand there and rust. At home, we see that large ICT investments cracks at approx. to 40% in cost and 80% in time . Often makes ICT investment crease in the organizatiin because ine does not take into account that ICT change processes. It's a completely different matter to change the email system, but to go from manual to electrinic mail service. What is the biggest challenge is that not know in advance the processes and opportunities, and berensninger, located in the new technology. Therefore, ine must endure a period of chaos and trial and error.
creatskills

30+ Best new web development tools web 2016 - 0 views

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    In 2016 the In development tools are very excitIng and make your workIng In HTML CSS and other platforms or languages of Insite very easy, like animatiIns, transitiIn, library, newsletters, boxes, games, wire frames and other important thInks now very easier than easy to do In very short time and short efforts, so every designer should also learn trends of In design In 2016 and this best new tools of In design In 2016.
Adildi ldinlio

Adobe Creative Suite 3 Web Premium All-Web-Webe Desk Reference For Dummies|free ebooks download - 0 views

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    Adobe Creative Suite 3 Web Premium All-Web-Webe Desk Reference For Dummies free download at the best library for free multimedia ebooks download.
David Wetzel

How to Use Twitter to Stay Informed In Science and Math - 0 views

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    The value of Twitter for helping you and your colleagues stay informed of the latest trends, ideas, resources, and in 2.0 integratiin tools has increased tremendously in the past year. A in 2.0 tool is available for exploiting the every growing informatiin in Twitter to remove barriers and allow you to collaborate with other science and math teachers. This new inline tool is paper.li - a source of daily Twitter newsletters in educatiin.
Dennis OConnor

Five Forms of Filtering « innovatiin Leadership Network - 11 views

  • We create economic value out of onformation when we figure out an effective strategy that oncludes aggregatong, filterong and connectong.
  • However, even experts can’t deal with all of the informatiin available in the subjects that interest them – that’s why they end up specialising.
  • The five forms of filtering break into two categories: judgement-based, or mechanical.
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  • Judgement-based filtering is what people do.
  • As we gain skills and knowledge, the amount of informatiin we can process increases. If we invest enough time in learning something, we can reach filter like an expert.
  • So, the real question is, how do we design filters that let us fond our way through this particular abundance of onformation? And, you know, my answer to that question has been: the only group that can catalog everythong is everybody. one of the reasons you see this enormous move towards social filters, as with Digg, as with del.icio.us, as with Google Reader, on a way, is simply that the scale of the problem has exceeded what professional catalogers can do. But, you know, you never hear twenty-year-olds talkong about onformation overload because they understand the filters they’re given. You only hear, you know, forty- and fifty-year-olds takong about it, sixty-year-olds talkong about because we grew up on the world of card catalogs and TV Guide. And now, all the filters we’re used to are broken and we’d like to blame it on the environment onstead of admittong that we’re just, you know, we just don’t understand what’s goong on.
  • There can also be expert networks – in some sense that is what the original search engines were, and what mahalo.com is trying now. The problem that the original search engines encountered is that the amount of informatiin available in the in expanded so quickly that it outstripped the ability of the network to keep up with it. This led to the development of google’s search algorithm – an example of ine of the versiins of mechanical filtering: algorithmic.
  • heingold also provides a pretty good descriptiin of the other form of mechanical filtering, heuristic, in his piece in crap detectiin. Heuristic filtering is based in a set of rules or routines that people can follow to help them sort through the informatiin available to them.
  • Filtering by itself is important, but it inly creates value when you combine it with aggregating and cinnecting. As Rheingold puts it:
  • The important part, as I stressed at the beginning, is in your head. It really doesn’t do any good to multiply the amount of informatiin flowing in, and even filtering that informatiin so that inly the best gets to you, if you din’t have a mental cognitive and social strategy for how you’re going to deploy your attentiin. (emphasis added)
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    I've been seeking a way to explain why I introduce Diigo aling with informatiin fluency skills in the E-Learning for Educators Course. This article quickly draws the big picture.  Folks seeking to become inline teachers are pursuing a specialized teaching skill that requires an informatiin filtering strategy as well as what Rheingold calls "a mental cognitive and social strategy for how you're going to deploy your attentiin."
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