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Joy Quah Yien-ling

Cognitive Apprenticeship, Technology, and the Contextualization of Learning Environments - 2 views

  • The authors (Collins, Brown, & Holum, 1991; Collins, Brown, & Newman,1989) as well as other researchers (Herrington & Oliver, 2000) have refined this model to the belief that useable knowledge is best gained in learning environments featuring the following characteristics:   Authentic context that allows for the natural complexity of the real world Authentic activities Access to expert performances and the modeling of processes Multiple roles and perspectives Collaboration to support the cooperative construction of knowledge Coaching and scaffolding which provides the skills, strategies and links that the students are initially unable to provide to complete the task Reflection to enable abstractions to be formed Articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit
  • The goal of learning, therefore, is to engage learners in legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice (Lave and Wenger 1991). Through community, learners interpret, reflect, and form meaning. Community provides the setting for the social interaction needed to engage in dialogue with others to see various and diverse perspectives on any issue. Community is the joining of practice with analysis and reflection to share the tacit understandings and to create shared knowledge from the experiences among participants in a learning opportunity (Wenger 1998).
  • The goal of cognitive apprenticeship is to address the problem of inert knowledge and to make the thinking processes of a learning activity visible to both the students and the teacher.  T
Jeanne Cousineau

John Seely Brown: Biography - 0 views

    John Seely Brown - author of Minds on Fire article
alexandra m. pickett


  • One online instructor (Alley 1996) has described this changing pedagogical consciousness as an �instructional epiphany�.� Alley tells of a personal transformation, stimulated by online instruction, marked by two "milestones". First, he had to totally redesign his course to fit and leverage the new learning environment. Second, he had to rethink what he calls his �basic approach�: �As long as I held on to the traditional �sage-on-stage� style of teaching, I would keep reinventing ways for students to be a passive audience� (1996:51).� Similar changes in pedagogical belief and practice have been reported by other faculty who have taught web-based courses (Brown 1998; Jaffee 1997; Cremer 1998) as well as researchers who have interviewed online instructors (Frank 2000).�� There are clearly some �structural constraints� built into the virtual classroom ecology that make it difficult to implement traditional modes of delivery and, in this sense, almost force instructors to entertain active learning strategies. As Frank (2000) discovered in her study of online instructors, "All of the participants saw online learning as empowering for students. The most valuable benefits were the facilitation of active learning, critical thinking, collaboration, confidence, and lifelong learning habits. A common theme was the way in which the teacher is forced to give up the control that one has in a face-to-face environment and re-examine the traditional role of content deliverer".� Just as the physical classroom architecture imposes constraints on, and opportunities for, particular pedagogical practices, so too does the virtual classroom. John Seely Brown (2000) has described the environment of the world-wide-web as a �learning ecology� that is a self-organized evolving collection of cross-pollinating overlapping communities of interest.� Asynchronous web-based courses that include a discussion forum possess many of the same ecological features. All members of the class can receive and broadcast information at any time. This critical communication feature distinguishes the virtual classroom from prior forms of instructional technology.�� While instructors can mediate and guide, they cannot entirely control the flow of communication. Thus, instructor and student roles and relations are less hierarchical and more overlapping and interactive. These greater opportunities for participation can contribute to a greater diversity of opinion and perspective. It is hard work to establish these social dynamics in a physical classroom constrained by a fixed space, a designated time block, and trained inhibitions. The virtual classroom, in contrast, has the potential to establish new patterns of instructor and student interaction and, accordingly, different teaching and learning roles and practices (Girod and Cavanaugh 2001; Becker and Ravitz 1999). ��������� In making comparisons between the physical and virtual classroom, it is important to emphasize a cautionary caveat. The pedagogical ecology, be it a physical classroom or a virtual interface, cannot entirely determine a particular pedagogical practice or learning outcome. The pedagogical ecology offers opportunities and constraints that will shape and influence classroom dynamics and learning outcomes, but much will also depend on the principles informing, and the actual design of, the teaching and learning process (see Chamberlin 2001). The various practices that are employed in both a physical and a virtual classroom indicate the range of possibilities. However, if we believe that, for the purpose of student learning, active student engagement and interaction is preferable to the passive reception of information, we should consider the degree to which this principle is advanced or facilitated by the expanding virtual learning ecology.�
  • Sociological theories and concepts have an important role to play in analyzing and interpreting these developments. A central sociological proposition is that structural environments influence the social perceptions, roles, and relations of human actors.� As increasing numbers of students and faculty find themselves operating in virtual learning environments, we might also expect to find some changing instructional dynamics. More specifically, there are a number of questions worth exploring. What are the relationships between the technical, the social, and the pedagogical infrastructures?� How has the introduction of new instructional technologies influenced established pedagogical practices? How does the shift from a physical classroom to a virtual learning environment shape and reconfigure the social roles and relations among faculty and students? What consequences will these technologies have for developing pedagogical practices?
  • have less to do with the proven effectiveness of the particular practice than the desire to appear legitimate or conform to normative expectations.�
    "eaching Sociology"
ian august

John Seely Brown: Chief of Confusion - 1 views

    Author of article minds on fire
ian august

Confessions of an Aca/Fan: Archives: A New Culture of Learning: An Interview with John Seely Brown and Douglas Thomas (Part One) - 0 views

  • . In fact we encourage that kind of exploration. It is how children explore and gain information about the world around them.
  • Can you share some of what you learned about student-directed learning
  • What we are essentially doing when we move to student-directed learning is undermining our own relatively stable (though I would argue obsolete) notions of expertise and replacing them something new and different.
  • ...6 more annotations...
  • One of the key arguments we are making is that the role of educators needs to shift away from being expert in a particular area of knowledge, to becoming expert in the ability to create and shape new learning environments. In
  • You get to see students learn, discover, explore, play, and develop, which is the primary reason
  • We take it as a truism that kids learn about the world through play.
  • known that at that age, play and learning are indistinguishable. The premise of A New Culture of Learning is grounded in the idea that we are now living in a world of constant change and flux, which means that more often than not, we are faced with the same problem that vexes children. How do I make sense of this strange, changing, amazing world? By returning to play as a modality of learning, we can see how a world in constant flux is no longer a challenge or hurdle to overcome; it becomes a limitless resource to engage, stimulate, and cultivate the imagination. Our argument brings to the fore the old aphorism "imagination is more important than knowledge." In a networked world, information is always available and getting easier and easier to access. Imagination, what you actually do with that information, is the new challenge
  • users are not so much creating content as they are constantly reshaping context
  • how we learn is more important than what we learn.
    great article on models and theories of teaching in the new media technology age
Donna Angley

You Play World of Warcraft...You're Hired! - 0 views

    In late 2004, Stephen Gillett was in the running for a choice job at Yahoo! - a senior management position in engineering. He was a strong contender. Gillett had been responsible for CNET's backend, and he had helped launch a number of successful startups. But he had an additional qualification his prospective employer wasn't aware of, one that gave him a decisive edge: He was one of the top guild masters in the online role-playing game World of Warcraft (Brown).
Amy M

Members | - 0 views

shared by Amy M on 11 Jun 12 - No Cached
    members in Kuali
Hedy Lowenheim

1091 Ten Best Practices for Teaching Online - 0 views

  • The posting below looks at best practices for teaching online.
  • Why is presence so important in the online environment? When faculty actively interact and engage students in a face-to-face classroom, the class evolves as a group and develops intellectual and personal bonds. The same type of community bonding happens in an online setting if the faculty presence is felt consistently.
    "Community building is the focus of much research in online learning (Brown, 2001; Rovai, 2002; Shea, 2006)."

Digital Natives - 2 views

    This is an article I found on the EBSCO data base through the UAlbany library titled "Digital natives? New and old media and children's outcomes" by Michael Bittman, Leonie Rutherford, Jude Brown and Lens Unsworth. This article discusses digital natives and how they react to media. I wanted to share this article in order to help raise the question about whether or not the aging of digital natives will influence the age demographics of online learners in the future.

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition - 5 views

    "One instructional strategy, termed "bridging," has been successful in helping students overcome persistent misconceptions (Brown, 1992; Brown and Clement, 1989; Clement, 1993). The bridging strategy attempts to bridge from students' correct beliefs (called anchoring conceptions) to their misconceptions through a series of intermediate analogous situations."
Kelly Gorcica

Metacognition: An Overview - 1 views

  • Metacognitive experiences involve the use of metacognitive strategies or metacognitive regulation (Brown, 1987). Metacognitive strategies are sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities, and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g., understanding a text) has been met. These processes help to regulate and oversee learning, and consist of planning and monitoring cognitive activities, as well as checking the outcomes of those activities.
  • Self-questioning is a common metacognitive comprehension monitoring strategy. If she finds that she cannot answer her own questions, or that she does not understand the material discussed, she must then determine what needs to be done to ensure that she meets the cognitive goal of understanding the text.
  • Knowledge is considered to be metacognitive if it is actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met. For example, a student may use knowledge in planning how to approach a math exam: "I know that I (person variable) have difficulty with word problems (task variable), so I will answer the computational problems first and save the word problems for last (strategy variable)." Simply possessing knowledge about one's cognitive strengths or weaknesses and the nature of the task without actively utilizing this information to oversee learning is not metacognitive.
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  • Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) is an instructional approach which emphasizes the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning. The objective of CSI is to enable all students to become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible, and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid, 1993). CSI is based on the assumption that there are identifiable cognitive strategies, previously believed to be utilized by only the best and the brightest students, which can be taught to most students (Halpern, 1996). Use of these strategies have been associated with successful learning (Borkowski, Carr, & Pressley, 1987; Garner, 1990).
  • Metacognition enables students to benefit from instruction (Carr, Kurtz, Schneider, Turner & Borkowski, 1989; Van Zile-Tamsen, 1996) and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies.
  • Metacognition and Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • The study of metacognition has provided educational psychologists with insight about the cognitive processes involved in learning and what differentiates successful students from their less successful peers. It also holds several implications for instructional interventions, such as teaching students how to be more aware of their learning processes and products as well as how to regulate those processes for more effective learning.
  • Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature. Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning, it is important to study metacognitive activity and development to determine how students can be taught to better apply their cognitive resources through metacognitive control.
Melissa Pietricola

Teachers' Domain: Melba Pattillo Beals - 0 views

    One of the Little Rock 9 documents her experience; audio file Great for students looking at voter integration; primary source file for them to include on their sites.
James Ranni

Hybrid Courses Are Best - 0 views

    Research summary on the effectiveness of Hybrid courses
Diane Gusa

Make thinking visible « MCU Center for Teaching & Learning - 0 views

  • Collins, Brown, and Holum suggested we adopt a model of cognitive apprenticeship as a teaching strategy.  This model encourages teachers and students to verbalize their thinking in order for the student to recognize gaps and to be brought to a more expert level of thinking. 
  • Modeling – This method requires the teacher to perform a task and to allow the student to observe and to build a mental model of the processes required to complete that task. Coaching – This method requires the student to perform a task while the teacher provides hints, feedback, and reminders to bring their performance closer to an expert performance. Scaffolding – This method requires the teacher to provide supports for the student to perform the task.  As the task is repeated and mastered less supports are provided to the student. Articulation – This method requires the teacher to pull out the student’s problem-solving processes through inquiry or by the student assuming the role of a critic to a set of activities. Reflection – This method requires the student to compare their own problem-solving processes with that of an expert. Exploration – This method requires the teacher to cultivate an environment of problem-solving independent of the expert
ian august

YouTube - John Seely Brown Lecture on Learning in the Digital Age - 0 views

shared by ian august on 15 Jun 11 - No Cached
    how students become co-participants in there peers learning by having the professor critique students work openly.
Diane Gusa

A dialogic approach to online facilitation - 0 views

  • Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching
  • Learning through dialogue with others has a long history.
  • main themes of learning theory
  • ...16 more annotations...
  • cognition is situated in particular social contexts (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991); knowing is distributed across groups (Cole, 1991; Perkins, 1993); and learning takes place in communities (Lipman, 2003; Scardemalia & Bereiter, 1996; Wenger, 1998).
  • "a space where conversation can occur
  • the integration of concrete experience and abstract thought; the integration of reflection and action; the spiral nature of these two; the relationship between separate and connected knowing; and the balance between collaboration and leadership.
  • The learning process must be constituted as a dialogue between tutor and student" (1993, p. 94)
  • Community of Practice and Community of Inquiry theory
  • The Community of Inquiry model is based not on the Community of Practice model but, at least in part, on Lipman's work with children (2003) in which "tutor and children collaborate with each other to grow in understanding, not only of the material world, but also of the personal and ethical world around them" (Wegerif, 2007, p. 139)
  • Although reflective dialogue has strong connections with Lipman's notion of multidimensional thinking, in that reflection allows synthesis, there may be difficulties with the use of this term as it has been used elsewhere with different connotations (Brookfield, 1995; Schon, 1983).
  • Yet students often find this kind of thinking difficult to express when they are learning something new, perhaps because emerging ideas are very vulnerable to criticism
  • the dialogic space is broadened to include other types of dialogue which contribute to the development of understanding yet which are easier for students to express. Creative dialogue opens up a reflective space in which issues can be explored with encouragement and trust.
  • Another technique is "thought shower" - similar to but perhaps less intense than brainstorming - in which even implicit judgement is suspended. Creative thinking, or dialogue, is not the same as creativity, which is often associated with art and design, yet it appears to have an important role in discovery
  • A third aspect of this reflective space is caring dialogue,
  • each of the participants really has in mind the other or others in their present and particular being, and turns to them with the intention of establishing a living mutual relation between himself and them."
  • Buber calls this intersubjectivity
  • The focus is on listening and understanding (Bakhtin, 1986), or reading and understanding in an asynchronous online environment
  • Caring thinking also includes caring about the topic or subject (Lipman, 2003, p. 262), which Sharp (2004) calls pedagogic caring,
  • Identifying (information responsive): Students explore the knowledge base of the discipline in response to questions or lines of inquiry framed by teachers ("What is the existing answer to, or current state of knowledge on, this question?") Pursuing (information active): Students explore a knowledge base by pursuing their own questions and lines of inquiry ("What is the existing answer to, or current state of knowledge on, my question?") Producing (discovery responsive): Students pursue open questions or lines of inquiry, framed by tutors or clients, in interaction with a knowledge base ("How can I answer this open question?") Authoring (discovery active): Students pursue their own open questions and lines of inquiry, in interaction with a knowledge base ("How can I answer my open question?") (Levy, 2009).
    AJET 26(1) Swann (2010) - another approach to think about for my discussion forum.
ian august

Web of Debt - How Banks And The Federal Reserve Are Bankrupting The Planet... - 0 views

    economic rock star
b malczyk

Paulo Freire and informal education - 0 views

  • emphasis on dialogue
  • informal education is a dialogical (or conversational) rather than a curricula
  • should not involve one person acting on another, but rather people working with each other. Too much education, Paulo Freire argues, involves 'banking' - the educator making 'deposits' in the educatee.
    • b malczyk
      This is in line with our module reading that describes knowledge as being joint constrcuted rather than a top down approach where an expert or textbook guide the instruction.
  • ...4 more annotations...
  • action that is informed (and linked to certain values).
  • enhancing community and building social capital and to leading us to act in ways that make for justice and human flourishing.
    • b malczyk
      This is comprable to Brown and Adler's learning to be rather than simlpy learning to know
  • great significance to those educators who have traditionally worked with those who do not have a voice, and who are oppressed.
  • developing consciousness, but consciousness that is understood to have the power to transform reality'
    Description of Paulo Freire and his work. He was an influential educator and sought to use education as a means of helping individuals develop a critical consciousness about their life situations. His work was geared towards groups who were oppressed and lacked opportunities.His most famous work was a book titled "Pedagogy of the Oppressed."
diane hamilton

Gricean Maxims.pdf (application/pdf Object) - 0 views

    conversation quality
Heather Kurto

JTE v24n1 - Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts During Problem Solving - 0 views

  • There are several factors that affect learning transfer. These include whether students understand or simply memorize knowledge, the amount of time spent on learning the task, the amount of deliberate practice that is done beyond learning the task, the motivation of the student, how the problem is represented, the transfer conditions, and the metacognition of the solver (Dweck, 1989; Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993; Johnson et al., 2011; Palinscar & Brown, 1984; Singley & Anderson, 1989).
  • A student’s comprehension of a problem and his or her ultimate ability to transfer concepts learned previously to the current problem is inextricably linked to his or her ability to properly represent the problem.
  • ognitive research shows that the organization of learning and how new learning relates to what a student already knows are the strongest predictors of how well a student will transfer knowledge (National Research Council, 2000). Schunn and Silk (2011) articulated, however, that in science and engineering students often “lack relevant conceptual frameworks or have frameworks that are not developed enough to support new learning adequately” (p. 9). The absence of such frameworks makes it difficult for students to connect and apply other knowledge where relevant.
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  • The problem solving process begins as soon as the problem solver generates enough information about the problem space to gain an understanding of the problem.
  • Representation in the problem-solving process refers to how the solver mentally represents the problem. The solver’s representation of the problem is directly related to his or her existing knowledge structure of the content of the problem.
  • Students have to increase their reflective practice to aid their metacognition and transfer of STEM concepts.
  • Different individuals have different conceptual knowledge and will make different associations to their knowledge. Exposure to the constraints and affordances of a particular context in which a problem exists will invariably influence the way in which the student represents a problem in a similar context.
  • Sanders (2009) admitted that it is difficult to prepare a teacher that is competent in all three bodies of knowledge, given the volume of content knowledge necessary to be an effective science, mathematics or technology educator.
  • This pedagogical approach is not without its challenges, as students may still compartmentalize their knowledge. Also, it is often difficult logistically and in terms of instructional timing for teachers across STEM discipline to collaborate effectively (Crismond, 2011; Kimbell & Stables, 2008).
  • Good and poor problem solvers differ in their recall of information from previously encountered problems and by extension their ability to transfer concepts to the target problem. This difference exists because poor problem solvers tend to remember surface similarities between problems, while good problem solvers remember underlying conceptual structures that make two problems similar although they have different surface features (Sutton, 2003).
  • Until student assessment methods are modified to reflect less dependency on standardized tests, engineering and technology educators will garner greater collaboration from math and science teachers when the latter can see that engineering and design-based curriculums does improve students’ ability to solve standardized test problems.
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