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Diane Gusa

From behaviorism to humanism: Incorporating self-direction in learning concept - 0 views

  • It appears that many adult educators today, especially those recognizing the value of self-direction in learning, operate primarily from humanist beliefs and c
  • It also has been our observation that some instructional designers (and many other educators) seem to have difficulty accepting or incorporating humanist beliefs and instead appear guided primarily by behaviorist or neobehaviorist beliefs and paradigms based primarily on logical positivism, although cognitive psychology is increasingly informing the instructional design field.
  • We consider it important to understand why some of the philosophical differences between the two disciplines exist.
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  • instructional design as a separate discipline, has developed from several forms of inquiry: (a) research pertaining to media usage and communications theory; (b) general systems theory and development; and (c) psychological and learning theory. Reigeluth (1983) suggests that the three theorists most responsible for the current development of instructional design knowledge include B. F. Skinner (1954), David Ausubel (1968), and Jerome Bruner (1966). Skinner is identified because of his work with behaviorism and Bruner and Ausubel are recognized because of their contributions to cognitive psychology. Reigeluth (1987) has also compiled information on several other authors, theories, and models he believes important to the development of instructional design as a profession. Gagne (1985), Piaget (1966), and Thorndike (and colleagues) (1928) are other scholars frequently cited as foundational for much of today's thinking about instructional design.
  • Humanism generally is associated with beliefs about freedom and autonomy and notions that "human beings are capable of making significant personal choices within the constraints imposed by heredity, personal history, and environment"
  • As Hollis (1991) notes, "traditionally, instructional technologists have largely ignored the humanists' ideas among all the available theories from which to draw upon and incorporate into their schemes. Theoretically, instructional technology has been based on research in human learning and communications theories. In reality, more borrowing of ideas is needed, especially from the ranks of the humanists" (p. 51
  • Humanist principles stress the importance of the individual and specific human needs. Among the major assumptions underlying humanism are the following: (a) human nature is inherently good; (b) individuals are free and autonomous, thus they are capable of making major personal choices; (c) human potential for growth and development is virtually unlimited; (d) self-concept plays an important role in growth and development; (e) individuals have an urge toward self-actualization; (f) reality is defined by each person; and (g) individuals have responsibility to both themselves and to others (Elias & Merriam, 1980).
  • "If an individual is concerned primarily with personal growth and development, how can that person truly be concerned with what is good for all of society?"
  • The learning environment should allow each learner to proceed at a pace best suited to the individual.
  • It is important to help learners continuously assess their progress and make feedback a part of the learning process.
  • 5. The learner's previous experience is an invaluable resource for future learning and thus enhancing the value of advanced organizers or making clear the role for mastery of necessary prerequisites.
  • We do recognize there may be times when self-directed opportunities are minimal, such as when involved in collaborative learning or when learning entirely new content, but believe that the assumption of personal responsibility is possible in ways not tied to the type of learning or content.
    Diane Gusa

    Making Assessment Personally Relevant | blog of proximal development - 0 views

    • I want my students to realize that learning is not about making your work conform to some standard imposed by the teacher. Learning is about creating your own standards and adjusting them based on your goals. Learning is about setting your own goals and monitoring your own progress. It is about having conversations with yourself and others.
    • needed to help them visualize their progress, their level of engagement, and their sense of ownership and not simply ask them to rate their own work using the traditional percentage or letter scale. Most importantly, I wanted them to see that an entry that contains lots of facts and links to many valuable resources is not necessarily as valuable as one that shows personal engagement with ideas, one where the readers can hear a unique, personal voice.
    • student self-assessment and personal progress charts is a work in progress.
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    • They understand that collecting information and putting it on their blog is not a challenging task. They understand that an entry that paraphrases information found online is not as interesting and valuable as one that shows the author in the process of analyzing and reflecting on his or her research. Finally, they can see and understand how much effort is needed to produce an entry that makes a personal statement, that constitutes a valuable and unique contribution to the studied field. In other words, they now understand that in order to produce something uniquely their own, they first need to have a solid grasp of all the facts and spend some time reflecting on them and their own thoughts about their research.
    • Making Assessment Personally Relevant
    Diane Gusa

    Critical Thinking and online learning - 0 views

      Boris & Hall (2005)
    Diane Gusa

    Exemplary Online Educators: Creating a Community of Inquiry - 0 views

    • White, Roberts and Br anna n (2003) focused particularly on course design in online education. Their major premise is that “unless the course is reconceptualized using an interactive learning pedagogy, the results are nothing more than a correspondence course via e-mail and that simply transferring a traditional classroom-based course to an online format is doomed to failure ” (White, Roberts & Br anna n, 2003, p. 172).
    • White, Roberts and Br anna n go on to describe an online nurse refresher course provided by University of Wisconsin that promotes the following four components - humanizing or creating a good learning environment; getting the learners to participate; using the right message so that it is received, understood, and remembered; and eliciti
    • cognitive presence of the teacher is a core concept in creating a community of inquiry.
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    • teacher learner interaction is not sufficient on its own to create effective learning.
    • The second major theme relates to exemplary online educators as affirmers. The students identified instructors who found opportunities to let their students know that they were succeeding in their studies and to encourage them in their learning.
    • The overlap of teaching presence and social presence as depicted in the model forms what Garrison and his colleagues have labeled “setting climate” (
    • The final theme is exemplary online educators as influencers
    • In some ways the Community of Inquiry model speaks to this experience of mutuality (Archer,, 2003).
    • The heart of the challenge facing online educators is “the need to create a critical community of inquiry- the hallmark of higher education – within a virtual text-based enviro
    Diane Gusa

    Teachers as experts in . . . inquiry? « Fires in the Mind - 0 views

    • Teachers as experts in . . . inquiry?

      A study just published in Science magazine sure makes one think twice about how we deliver “content knowledge” the classroom. The method by which a course is taught, it indicates, may be even more important than the instructor’s background.

      In a college physics class, listening to a lecture by a highly experienced and respected professor yielded fa

    • a control group performed more than twice as well when their teachers—a research associate and a graduate student—used discussions, active learning, and assignments in which students had to grapple with both new and old information.
    • “deliberate practice,
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    • These students had time to synthesize and incorporate new ideas from the lecture into their prior knowledge and experiences.
    • ombined in-class practice and frequent formative assessments (such as pretests) with an emphasis on real-world applications.
    Diane Gusa

    learning "effective feedback" - Google Search - 0 views

    Diane Gusa


      This link will not allow me to hyperlink to my post. grrrrrrrrrr
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