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Diane Gusa

A dialogic approach to online facilitation - 0 views

  • Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching
  • Learning through dialogue with others has a long history.
  • main themes of learning theory
  • ...16 more annotations...
  • cognition is situated in particular social contexts (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991);
  • knowing is distributed across groups (Cole, 1991; Perkins, 1993); and
  • learning takes place in communities (Lipman, 2003; Scardemalia & Bereiter, 1996; Wenger, 1998).
  • "a space where conversation can occur
  • the integration of concrete experience and abstract thought;
  • the integration of reflection and action;
  • the spiral nature of these two;
  • the relationship between separate and connected knowing; and
  • the balance between collaboration and leadership.
  • The learning process must be constituted as a dialogue between tutor and student" (1993, p. 94)
  • Community of Practice and Community of Inquiry theory
  • The Community of Inquiry model is based not on the Community of Practice model but, at least in part, on Lipman's work with children (2003) in which "tutor and children collaborate with each other to grow in understanding, not only of the material world, but also of the personal and ethical world around them" (Wegerif, 2007, p. 139)
  • Although reflective dialogue has strong connections with Lipman's notion of multidimensional thinking, in that reflection allows synthesis, there may be difficulties with the use of this term as it has been used elsewhere with different connotations (Brookfield, 1995; Schon, 1983).
  • Yet students often find this kind of thinking difficult to express when they are learning something new, perhaps because emerging ideas are very vulnerable to criticism
  • the dialogic space is broadened to include other types of dialogue which contribute to the development of understanding yet which are easier for students to express. Creative dialogue opens up a reflective space in which issues can be explored with encouragement and trust.
  • Another technique is "thought shower" - similar to but perhaps less intense than brainstorming - in which even implicit judgement is suspended. Creative thinking, or dialogue, is not the same as creativity, which is often associated with art and design, yet it appears to have an important role in discovery
  • A third aspect of this reflective space is caring dialogue,
  • each of the participants really has in mind the other or others in their present and particular being, and turns to them with the intention of establishing a living mutual relation between himself and them."
  • Buber calls this intersubjectivity
  • The focus is on listening and understanding (Bakhtin, 1986), or reading and understanding in an asynchronous online environment
  • Caring thinking also includes caring about the topic or subject (Lipman, 2003, p. 262), which Sharp (2004) calls pedagogic caring,
  • Identifying (information responsive): Students explore the knowledge base of the discipline in response to questions or lines of inquiry framed by teachers ("What is the existing answer to, or current state of knowledge on, this question?")
  • Pursuing (information active): Students explore a knowledge base by pursuing their own questions and lines of inquiry ("What is the existing answer to, or current state of knowledge on, my question?")
  • Producing (discovery responsive): Students pursue open questions or lines of inquiry, framed by tutors or clients, in interaction with a knowledge base ("How can I answer this open question?")
    • Authoring (discovery active): Students pursue their own open questions and lines of inquiry, in interaction with a knowledge base ("How can I answer my open question?") (Levy, 2009).
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